Wof-Washa Forest

ETHTIPA009
Wof-Washa Forest

Country: Ethiopia

Administrative region: Amhara (Regional State)

Central co-ordinates: 9.74730 N, 39.75024 E

Area: 91.3km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, C(iii)Site contains nationally threatened or restricted habitat or vegetation types, AND/OR habitats that have severely declined in extent nationally

IPA assessment rationale

Wof-Washa Forest is one of the most important remnants of the nationally threatened Dry Afromontane Forest, therefore qualifying as an IPA under criterion C(iii), and under criterion A(i) due to the presence of the globally threatened species, Aloe ankoberensis (EN), for which this IPA is thought to contain the entire global population.

Also of note is the presence of the widespread but globally threatened timber species Prunus africana (VU), and the timber species, Juniperus procera (LC, but decreasing globally). These do not trigger IPA status but could in the future.

Site description

Wof-Washa Forest is situated approximately 140-160 km northeast of Addis Ababa and c. 25 km to the west of Debre Birhan, the administration Centre of north Shewa Zone. It is located within the Shewa floristic region in the Amhara Regional State of the Ethiopian Central Highlands. The topology of the IPA is mountainous, dissected by numerous rivers and streams. The IPA is bordered by the towns of Ankober (the former capital of the kingdom of Shewa) to the south and Debre Sina to the north. The main road between Ankober and Debre Birhan runs through the south of the IPA, while the main road between Debre Birhan and Debre Sina runs through the north of the site.

The IPA is one of the few remaining remnants of the nationally threatened Dry Afromontane Forests in Ethiopia. During the 15th century, Emperor Zera Yakob is said to have ordered the reforestation of Menagesha Forest to the west of Addis Ababa using seeds of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. taken from Wof-Washa Forest (Sebsebe, 1988; Teketay & Bekele, 1995). Wof-Washa is thought to be one of Ethiopia’s oldest proclaimed state forest (Spooner, 2014).

Wof-Washa Forest is designated as a National Forest Priority Area (NFPA). The forest comes under the Ankober – Debre Sina Escarpment Important Bird Area (IBA) and Key Biodiversity Area (KBA). The name Wof-Washa means Cave of Birds (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995).

Botanical significance

Dry Afromontane Forests were once extensive across the Ethiopian Highlands but have been reduced to remnant fragments due to agricultural expansion, urban sprawl, and population pressures. Wof-Washa Forest is one of the best remaining examples of this nationally threatened habitat in Central Ethiopia, and reportedly the largest remnant in the Amhara Regional State (Tessema et al., 2016; Teshome et al., 2018).

Of particular importance, Wof-Washa Forest and its immediate vicinity is thought to contain the entire global population of the globally threatened Aloe ankoberensis M.G.Gilbert & Sebsebe (EN). This species is associated with steep rocky slopes and cliff faces.

Seventeen Ethiopian endemics and seven near endemics have been recorded within the forest according to Teketay & Bekele (1995) and Yirga et al. (2019), updated according to POWO (2021), including the widely used medicinal plant Echinops kebericho Mesfin (NT). Additionally, the Ethiopian endemic Trifolium pichisermollii J.B.Gillettt (NT), has been recorded just outside the IPA near the town of Ankober.

Also of note is the globally threatened medicinal timber species, Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman (VU), however this IPA is not thought to be a globally important site for this widespread species. The highly economically important tree species, Juniperus procera (LC, but decreasing globally) is the dominant species within the forest.

The globally threatened species, Aloe sinana Reynolds (EN) has been recorded in the areas surrounding the site and could be present within the IPA. The globally threatened species, Carex monostachya A.Rich. (VU) was recorded in the KBA assessment, however this appears to be incorrect. Further investigation is needed.

Habitat and geology

Wof-Washa Forest is one of the few remnant Dry Afromontane Forests in Ethiopia. It is floristically similar to the Menagesha and Chilimo Forest IPAs.

The topology of Wof-Washa Forest is characterised by mountainous terrain with steep slopes and rugged terrain, highly dissected by rivers and streams (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Goshme & Yihune, 2018). The escarpment on which the forest resides forms part of the Awash river system catchment area (Bekele, 1993). Many of the streams and rivers within the IPA are tributaries of the Awadi river, which is itself the main tributary of the Awash (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). Bekele (1993) describes the slopes of the escarpment as rising abruptly from the surrounding lowlands, which are characterised by arable land and settlements. Land types found within the IPA are forest, shrubland, steep cliffs, and exotic and indigenous plantations.

Wof-Washa Forest is dominated by Juniperus procera, Afrocarpus gracilior (Pilg.) C.N.Page (formerly Podocarpus gracilior), Erica arborea L., Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F.Gmel., Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk., Myrsine melanophloeos (L.) R.Br. ex Sweet, Euphorbia abyssinica J.F.Gmel., Gymnosporia arbutifolia (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Loes. (formerly Maytenus arbutifolia), Myrsine africana L., and Galiniera saxifraga (Hochst.) Bridson (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Fisaha et al., 2013). Teketay & Bekele (1995) recorded 252 plant species across 71 families within the forest.

Above the tree limit, the IPA is characterised by a Festuca-grassland with Thymus schimperi Ronniger, Anthemis tigrensis J.Gay ex A.Rich., Crepis rueppellii Sch.Bip., and scattered individuals of the endemic Lobelia rhynchopetalum Hemsl. (alt.: 3400 m +) (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). Juniperus procera, Erica arborea, Hagenia abyssinica, and Rosa abyssinica R.Br. ex Lindl. dominate the upper elevations of the forest, while Afrocarpus gracilior dominates in the lower elevations (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Fisaha et al., 2013). Bekele (1993) and Fisaha et al. (2013) recorded an Afrocarpus – Allophylus abyssinicus community type at lower elevations and in valley bottoms. According to Fisaha et al. (2013) this community type is highly impacted by human disturbance. Indicator species of this community are Afrocarpus gracilior, Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk., Haleria lucida L., Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb., Ficus sur Forssk., Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Carissa spinarum L., and Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood (Fisaha et al., 2013).

The succulent tree Euphorbia abyssinica J.F.Gmel. forms a distinct vegetation type found at the edges of the forest (Bekele, 1993; Fisaha et al., 2013). Within this vegetation type, regenerating Afrocarpus gracilior trees form a subcanopy (Bekele, 1993). Fisaha et al. (2013) also reported Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims, Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms, Bersama abyssinica Fresen., Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile, Astropanax abyssinicus (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Seem. (formerly Schefflera abyssinica), Searsia retinorrhoea (Steud. ex Oliv.) Moffett, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., and Celtis africana Burm.f. as being common within a similar elevation range - several of these are pioneer species of regenerating forest.

A small population of mountain bamboo, Oldeania alpina (K.Schum.) Stapleton (formerly Arundinaria alpina), persists in Wof-Washa Forest according to Bekele (1993). Recent surveys confirm the continued presence of these bamboo thickets.

The bedrock of the area is Tarmaber basalt, the major rock type of the region (Bekele, 1993). The general lithology of the area is comprised of ferric basalts, fine grained basalts, zeolitized basalts, phonolites, alkali trachytes, trachyphonolites, and rhyolites (Bekele, 1993). Soils are predominantly leptosols and cambisols (Jones et al., 2013). Soils within the forest are generally shallow, and particularly thin on slopes and rocky outcrops (Bekele, 1993; Spooner, 2014).

Rainfall is bimodal with a long wet season running from July to September, and a short wet season between March and May (Fisaha et al., 2013). The mean annual rainfall is ca. 1400 mm (Spooner, 2014; Goshme & Yihune, 2018; Teshome et al., 2018). The minimum mean annual temperature ranges from 10-11°C, whilst the maximum mean annual temperature is 20°C (Bekele, 1993; Spooner, 2014). Cloud and mist persistence is common at higher altitudes of the forest year round (Bekele, 1993), providing an important moisture source.

Conservation issues

Wof-Washa Forest is designated as a National Forest Priority Area (NFPA), managed by the State Forests Conservation and Development Office (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). Teketay & Bekele (1995) reported temporary forest guards and inconsistent payments resulted in a less rigorous protection of the forest.

The major threats to Wof-Washa Forest include deforestation, fragmentation, and habitat degradation. Population pressure, unsustainable forest use, and an increasing number of livestock are thought to be key factors in the decline of Wof-Washa Forest (Spooner, 2014; Tessema et al., 2016; Tadesse & Teketay, 2017). Tilaun (2012) in Yirga et al. (2019) reported that approximately 300 ha of natural forest had been severely degraded with very few Juniperus procera individuals along the forest border and on rocky areas in higher elevations of the forest. The quality of habitat has declined due to overgrazing from livestock and overexploitation from local communities for timber products (Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Spooner, 2014; Goshme & Yihune, 2018). Overgrazing from livestock causes damage to seedlings and sapling and therefore hinders the natural regeneration of the forest; occasionally patches of the forest are cleared to create temporary barns for livestock (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). The forest has also been subjected to progressive encroachment from arable land and settlements (Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Tessema et al., 2016); intensive crop cultivation in the surrounding area has been carried out for centuries (Spooner, 2014).

The shortage of wood in the surrounding areas has put pressure on the use of Wof-Washa Forest (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). Density analysis of woody species by Fisaha et al. (2013) has shown that large-sized trees, such as Hagenia abyssinica, are facing higher deforestation rates than shrubs and smaller trees, such as Myrsine africana. Teketay & Bekele (1995) reported that the bamboo Oldeania alpina was used by the local communities for construction, which had resulted in a decline of that species. Bekele (1993) recorded 109 logs and 47 stumps across 19 (30 x 30 m) plots in Wof-Washa Forest. Unlike the Chilimo and Menagesha IPAs, Wof-Washa has never been logged for commercial use (Bekele, 1993). The remote location, steep slopes, and distance from major roads have contributed to the lack of commercial exploitation (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995). However, in addition to making the forest inaccessible, the steep slopes make the IPA susceptible to soil erosion (Bekele, 1993; Tessema et al., 2016). The globally threatened Aloe ankoberensis grows on steep cliffs in forested areas and is threatened by erosion resulting from deforestation and overgrazing (Weber & Sebsebe, 2013).

Bekele (1993) described Wof-Washa as a mature forest in comparison to Menagesha and Chilimo Forests, which are thought of as secondary due to historical overexploitation from sawmills since the early 1900s. Teketay & Bekele (1995) observed that Juniperus procera had poor regeneration at Wof-Washa, with very few saplings and seedlings recorded. However, Afrocrapus gracilior, Erica arborea and Hagenia abyssinica were found to be regenerating naturally. Regeneration in Wof-Washa Forest is thought to be lower than the Menagesha-Suba Forest IPA, this is likely due to overgrazing (Fisaha et al., 2013).

Major differences in opinion regarding the forest cover of Wof-Washa have been reported over the last eight decades, with forest cover estimated to be between 2,000 ha and 10,000 ha depending on the source (Bekele, 1993; Teketay & Bekele, 1995; Fisaha et al., 2013; Spooner, 2014; Tessema et al., 2016). These discrepancies in forest cover are likely due to differences of opinion in delimitation rather than forest loss and gain. Additionally, inclusion of indigenous and exotic plantations in some reports could have resulted in larger forest cover. Most recently, Yirga et al. (2019) reported Wof-Washa Forest cover to be 7,550 ha. The Wof-Washa Forest IPA covers ca. 9,133 ha and includes natural forest, high altitude grassland with shrubs, rocky outcrops, and plantations of Juniperus procera and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

In the early 2000s an Ethiopian NGO, SUNARMA, established participatory forest management (PFM) in Wof-Washa Forest. The five year project resulted in 93 enterprise groups and 11 forest management cooperatives being established (Tree Aid, 2021). The project aimed to develop sustainable management of the forest and increase income to local communities. Eucalyptus plantations were developed to relieve the pressure of timber products from the natural forest (Action Ethiopia, 2018). Tessema et al. (2016) reported that approximately 6,260 ha of forest was handed over to the forest management cooperatives in 2017. Tadesse & Teketay (2017) found that generally there was a positive attitude towards PFM from local communities, however awareness of PFM and local involvement in decision making should be increased.

The Regional Office of State Forests Conservation and Development established a tree nursery within Wof-Washa Forest to support reforestation and afforestation (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). The nursery has the capacity to hold 500,000 Juniperus procera seedlings (Teketay & Bekele, 1995). This nursery was later managed by SUNARMA before eventually being handed over to the Ethiopian REDD+ initiative under the Commission for Forest and Climate Change (Spooner, 2014; Ermias Lulekal pers. comm., 2021).

The IPA overlaps with the Ankober – Debre Sina Escarpment Important Bird Area (IBA) and Key Biodiversity Area (KBA), which supports the only known population of the endemic Ankober Serin (Crithagra ankoberensis, VU) (BirdLife, 2021a). The Ankober – Debre Sina Escarpment IBA was designated in 1996 under criteria A1, A2, and A3 based on the occurrence of 24 bird species (BirdLife, 2021a). Two are currently categorised as Vulnerable (VU) under the IUCN Red List: Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera) and Ankober Serin (Crithagra ankoberensis), and two are Near Threatened (NT), Moorland Francolin (Scleroptila psilolaema) and Abyssinian Longclaw (Macronyx flavicollis) (BirdLife, 2021a). The Ankober – Debre Sina Escarpment KBA was last assessed in 2011 as vulnerable due to the presence of Ankober Serin (Crithagra ankoberensis, VU), Ruppell’s Chat (Myrmecocichla melaena, LC), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus, VU now EN), and Carex monostachya (VU) (Key Biodiversity Areas, 2020). The reported presence of Carex monostachya in Wof-Washa Forest requires further investigation, but is considered to be in error.

Ecosystem services

Local communities utilise Wof-Washa Forest for fuelwood, construction material, farm implements, food, honey, medicinal plants, hunting, and pasture for livestock (Teketay & Bekele 1995). The main income source for the IPA and surrounding areas is from livestock and agricultural crops, such as wheat, maize, and teff (Teketay & Bekele, 1995).

Wof-Washa Forest plays a key role in combating soil erosion and regulating the watershed of the Awash River system (Teketay & Bekele, 1995; BirdLife, 2021a).

In 2014, SUNARMA started a tourism project within Wof-Washa Forest. The project established community run lodges at five locations within the forest (only four are in use after one lodge burnt down), in addition to campsites, food catering facilities, and tourist activities such as hiking trails and horse riding (Spooner, 2014; Action Ethiopia, 2018; BirdLife, 2021b). Wof-Washa Forest is also popular for bird watching (Teshome et al., 2018). According to Teshome et al. (2018) the forest contains churches and other sites of interest that could be attractive for cultural tourism.

Fauna that have been recorded within the IPA include Leopard (Panthera pardus, VU), and endemics such as the Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis, EN), Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada, LC), and Menelik’s bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki) (Spooner, 2014; Goshme & Yihune, 2018). Important bird species are noted in the 'Conservation Issues' section.

Site assessor(s)

Eden House, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Iain Darbyshire, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Ermias Lulekal, Addis Ababa University

Sebsebe Demissew, Addis Ababa University

Sileshi Nemomissa, Addis Ababa University

Tesfaye Awas, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute

Birhanu Belay Telake, Gullele Botanic Garden

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman A(i) False False False False False
Aloe ankoberensis M.G.Gilbert & Sebsebe A(i) True True True True False

Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aloe ankoberensis M.G.Gilbert & Sebsebe

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
Dry Afromontane Forest C(iii) True True True 8800

Dry Afromontane Forest

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
True
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:
8800

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major
Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks] No value Major
Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland No value Minor
Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls] No value Minor
Artificial - Terrestrial - Plantations No value Major
Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land No value Minor
Artificial - Terrestrial - Pastureland No value Minor
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland No value Minor

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Artificial - Terrestrial - Plantations

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Artificial - Terrestrial - Pastureland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation No value Major
Agriculture (arable) No value Minor
Agriculture (pastoral) No value Unknown
Tourism / Recreation No value Minor
Forestry No value Major
Harvesting of wild resources No value Major

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Agriculture (pastoral)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Unknown

Tourism / Recreation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Forestry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded High Ongoing - trend unknown
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming High Ongoing - trend unknown
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Wof-Washa National Forest Priority Area National Forest Priority Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA No value

Wof-Washa National Forest Priority Area

Protected area type:
National Forest Priority Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Ankober-Debre Sina Escarpment IBA Important Bird Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA No value
Ankober-Debre Sina Escarpment KBA Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA No value

Ankober-Debre Sina Escarpment IBA

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Ankober-Debre Sina Escarpment KBA

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Sustainable Forestry management in place Eleven forest management cooperatives, established by SUNARMA, sustainably manage ca. 6,262 ha of forest within the IPA (Tessema et al., 2016). This participatory Forest Management (PFM) aims to maintain the natural forest, increase forest cover by reforestation and afforestation, and establish Eucalyptus plantations to relieve pressure from the natural forest (Action Ethiopia, 2018). The PFM plan prepared by the forest cooperatives and the Amhara National Regional State Forest Enterprise has four main sections: 1) forest development, 2) forest protection, 3) sustainable forest utilisation, and 4) forest follow up and monitoring (Tessema et al., 2016). No value No value

Sustainable Forestry management in place

Eleven forest management cooperatives, established by SUNARMA, sustainably manage ca. 6,262 ha of forest within the IPA (Tessema et al., 2016). This participatory Forest Management (PFM) aims to maintain the natural forest, increase forest cover by reforestation and afforestation, and establish Eucalyptus plantations to relieve pressure from the natural forest (Action Ethiopia, 2018). The PFM plan prepared by the forest cooperatives and the Amhara National Regional State Forest Enterprise has four main sections: 1) forest development, 2) forest protection, 3) sustainable forest utilisation, and 4) forest follow up and monitoring (Tessema et al., 2016).
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

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Vegetation ecology of remnant Afromontane forests on the Central Plateau of Shewa, Ethiopia.

Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, Vol 79, page(s) 1-61

Sebsebe, D, 1988

The floristic composition of the Menagesha State Forest and the need to conserve such forests in Ethiopia.

Mountain Research and Development, Vol 8(2/3), page(s) 243-247

POWO, 2021

Plants of the World Online.

Available online

Action Ethiopia, 2018

Wof-Washa Forest Project

Available online

BirdLife, 2021a

Important Bird Areas factsheet: Ankober – Debre Sina Escarpment.

Available online

BirdLife, 2021b

Walk the Walk: Ecotourism in Ethiopia.

Available online

Eyosias, W. & Teshome, S., 2015

Allometric Equation for Biomass Determination in Juniperus procera Endl. and Podocarpus falcatus Mirb of Wof-Washa Forest: Implication for Climate Change Mitigation.

American Journal of Life Sciences, Vol 3(3), page(s) 190-202

Fisaha, G., Hundera, K., & Dalle, G., 2014

Woody plants’ diversity, structural analysis and regeneration status of Wof Washa natural forest, North-east Ethiopia.

African Journal of Ecology, Vol 51, page(s) 599-608

Goshme, B. & Yihune, M., 2018

Population structure and habitat use of gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) in Wof-Washa Forest (Gosh-Meda Area), Central Ethiopia.

Journal of Ecology and Environment, Vol 42, page(s) 35

Key Biodiversity Areas, 2020

Key Biodiversity Areas Factsheet: Ankober – Debre Sina escarpment. Key Biodiversity Areas Factsheet: Ankober – Debre Sina escarpment.

Available online

Spooner, L., 2014

Wof Washa CBET Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan.

Available online

Teshome, E., Asebe, B., & Amlaku, N., 2018

Tourism Potentials of Wof-Washa National Priority Forest Area, Ethiopia: Its Significance to Community-Based Ecotourism Development.

Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports, Vol 39, page(s) 21-29

Tessema, C., Jirane, T., & Ali, B., 2016

Darwin Initiative Final Report - Wof Washa Forest: Sustainable Management for Resilient Livelihoods.

Available online

Tree Aid, 2021

Protecting the Wof-Washa Forest.

Available online

Yirga, F., Marie, M., Kassa, S., & Haile, M., 2019

Impact of altitude and anthropogenic disturbance on plant species composition, diversity, and structure at the Wof-Washa highlands of Ethiopia.

Heliyon, Vol 5, page(s) e02284

Teketay, D. & Bekele, T., 1995

Floristic composition of Wof-Washa natural forest, Central Ethiopia: implications for the conservation of biodiversity.

Feddes Repertorium, Vol 106(1-2), page(s) 127-147

Tadesse, S.A. & Teketay, D., 2017

Perceptions and attitudes of local people towards participatory forest management in Tarmaber District of North Shewa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia: the case of Wof-Washa Forests.

Ecological Processes, Vol 6, page(s) 17

Weber, O. & Sebsebe Demissew, 2013

Aloe ankoberensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Weber, O. & Sebsebe Demissew, 2013

Aloe sinana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Recommended citation

Eden House, Iain Darbyshire, Ermias Lulekal, Sebsebe Demissew, Sileshi Nemomissa, Tesfaye Awas, Birhanu Belay Telake (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Wof-Washa Forest (Ethiopia). https://tipas.kew.org/site/wof-washa-forest/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)