Waigeo

NGUTIPA005
Waigeo

Country: New Guinea

Administrative region: Papua (Province)

Central co-ordinates: 0.20147 S, 130.94927 E

Area: 3155km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, A(iii)Site contains one or more highly restricted endemic species that are potentially threatened

IPA assessment rationale

Criterion A(i): globally threatened species Boea urvillei (VU), Dimorphanthera ovatifolia (VU), Rhodamnia waigeoensis (VU), Guioa waigeoensis (VU), Nepenthes danseri (VU), Wallaceodoxa raja-ampat (CR).
Criterion A(iii): there are 13 highly restricted endemic plant species found only on Waigeo island. unique ultrabasic shrubbery vegetation type, also limestone karst. Steep and isolated mountains with a compressed set of ecosystem types (cline?).

Site description

Waigeo is the largest island in the Raja Ampat archipelago, located off the north-west coast of New Guinea. The island is almost divided into two by Mayalibit Bay, with the eastern and western sides joined by a narrow isthmus in the north. The coastline is steep and the interior is rugged, although not high elevation apart from several isolated mountains on the eastern side, the best surveyed of which is Mount Nok. The marine environment is famous for being the most biologically diverse in the world for coral reef species.

Botanical significance

There are 13 plant species which current data indicates are endemic to Waigeo. Of those that have Red List assessments, Boea urvillei, Dimorphanthera ovatifolia, Rhodamnia waigeoensis and Guioa waigeoensis are assessed as Vulnerable and Alstonia beatricis is assessed as Data Deficient. The pitcher plant Nepenthes danseri occurs on Waigeo and Halmahera islands and is assessed as Vulnerable. The near-endemic palm Wallceodoxa raja-ampat has a preliminary assessment of Critically Endangered. There are three plants species only known from the small area of mossy montane forest on Mount Nok above 800 metres asl: Dimorphanthera ovatifolia, Rhododendron cornu-bovis and Dendrobium azureum.

Habitat and geology

Waigeo has at least nine vegetation types (Hamidi et al. 2017), of which the uncommon ones are the forests on ultrabasic and limestone substrates. Mayalibit Bay is a lagoon and mangrove ecosystem.
The higher elevation areas of Waigeo have compressed vegetation zones due to the Massenerhebung effect, with pseudomontane vegetation forming as low as 100 metres asl on hill tops (Widyatmoko 2010). The steep and isolated Mount Nok and Mount Danai has stunted mossy submontane forests above 800 metres asl, which is the only known habitat for several endemic species.
Ultrabasic shrubbery.

Conservation issues

Extensive NGO and community involvement in ecosystem management (White et al. 2022). There was low impact logging over most of the lowland forests, targeting Intsia spp. but Waigeo forests are otherwise little disturbed. Waigeo is a popular tourist destination, particularly for divers and birders, so there is demand for infrastructure development, notably a ring road (Hamidi et al. 2017). The surrounding marine environment is one of the most biodiverse in the world, and any disruption to the terrestrial ecosystems causing increased erosion or sediment flow would impact these ecosystems (Waigeo modelled as a case study by Rude et al. 2016). Lagoon and mangrove ecosystem of Mayalibit Bay is an important crustacean and fish breeding area. Endemic Waigeo brush turkey. Wilson's bird of paradise (NT), Red Bird of Paradise (NT) found on Waigeo. Traditional management of marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

Ecosystem services

Intact forest ecosystems moderate sediment flow / erosion control into Maybrit Bay lagoon ecosystem and surrounding coral reefs.
Tourism, particularly for marine ecosystems and endemic birds.

Site assessor(s)

Laura Jennings, Royal Botanic Garden Kew

Liam Trethowan, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Charlie Heatubun, The Provincial Government of West Papua and Universitas Papua

Jimmy Wanma, State University of Papua

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Rungia heterophylla Bremek. A(iv) False False False False False Unknown
Alstonia beatricis Sidiy. A(iii) False False False False False Common
Alyxia laurina Gaudich. A(iii) False False False False False Unknown
Dimorphanthera ovatifolia Sleumer A(i) False False False False False Unknown
Rhododendron cornu-bovis Sleumer A(iii) False False False False False Unknown
Boea urvillei C.B.Clarke A(i) False False False False False Unknown
Rhodamnia waigeoensis N.Snow A(i) False False False False False Unknown
Dendrobium azureum Schuit. A(iii) False False False False False Unknown
Spathoglottis latifolia (Gaudich.) Garay & Ormerod A(iii) False False False False False Unknown
Hydnophytum multituberosum Jebb & C.R.Huxley A(iv) False False False False False Unknown
Guioa waigeoensis Welzen A(i) False False False False False Frequent
Plesioneuron royenii Holttum A(iv) False False False False False Unknown

Rungia heterophylla Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Alstonia beatricis Sidiy.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Alyxia laurina Gaudich.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Dimorphanthera ovatifolia Sleumer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Rhododendron cornu-bovis Sleumer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Boea urvillei C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Rhodamnia waigeoensis N.Snow

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Dendrobium azureum Schuit.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Spathoglottis latifolia (Gaudich.) Garay & Ormerod

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Hydnophytum multituberosum Jebb & C.R.Huxley

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Guioa waigeoensis Welzen

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Plesioneuron royenii Holttum

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Minor
Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes No value

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation 50 Major

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
50
Importance:
Major

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Waigeo Barat National Nature Reserve IPA encompasses protected/conservation area No value
Waigeo Timur National Nature Reserve IPA encompasses protected/conservation area No value

Waigeo Barat

Protected area type:
National Nature Reserve
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
No value

Waigeo Timur

Protected area type:
National Nature Reserve
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
No value

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Waigeo Barat Key Biodiversity Area IPA encompasses protected/conservation area No value
Waigeo Timur Key Biodiversity Area IPA encompasses protected/conservation area No value

Waigeo Barat

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
No value

Waigeo Timur

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
No value

Bibliography

Widyatmoko, D., 2017

Plant Diversity and Composition in Mount Nok and the Waifoi Forest of the Waigeo Raja Ampat Islands: with Special Reference to The Threatened Species

Jurnal Biologi Indonesia, Vol 6(2), page(s) 195-209 Available online

Hamidi, A., Tibalia, J., Shomat, F. and Lunga, S., 2017

Tree species composition of lowland hill forest on volcanic rock in Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat district, West Papua.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Plant Conservation and Utilization, page(s) 14-24 Available online

White, C.M., Mangubhai, S., Rumetna, L. and Brooks, C.M., 2022

The bridging role of non-governmental organizations in the planning, adoption, and management of the marine protected area network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia

Marine Policy, Vol 14, page(s) 105095

Recommended citation

Laura Jennings, Liam Trethowan, Charlie Heatubun, Jimmy Wanma (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Waigeo (New Guinea). https://tipas.kew.org/site/waigeo/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)