Tofala Hill Wildlife sanctuary, Lebialem Highlands

CMNTIPA007
Tofala Hill Wildlife sanctuary, Lebialem Highlands

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 1.00000 N, 10.50000 E

Area: 15km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The Tofala Hills Wildlife Sanctuary qualfies as a potential IPA under criterion A(i) through the recorded presence of 37 globally threatened species.
It is possible the site might also qualify under criterion B(i) and/or C(iii) for the vegetation type “submontane tropical forest” or a subtype, given that this habitat has suffered much loss in Cameroon. The site might also qualify under criterion B(ii) based on the number of nationally endemic or range restricted species. Twenty-two national endemics are counted here for THWS. This is equivalent to over 3.4% of the (provisional) national total of 655 (Onana, 2011) and thus exceeds the 3% threshold suggested for the IPA criterion. With regard to criterion B(iii), relatively few species are listed in Harvey et al (2010) as being of social, economic or cultural importance but this may be misleading and more ethnobotanic data is needed.

Site description

The Lebialem Highlands, covering around 1200 km2 in northwest, west and southwest regions of Cameroon, is part of the line of volcanic uplands running from the Atlantic islands northeastwards near the Nigerian–Cameroon border area. Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, formally recognised in 2014 (Prime Ministerial Decree Number 20145212), forms a small part of these highlands, with an area of 8087 ha. It is situated in Wabane and Alou districts and has its administrative headquarters in Bechati. Although this part of Cameroon is highly populated and the site is surrounded by 10 villages and is less than 40 km from Bamenda, the third largest city in the country, it is quite remote from access routes (Harvey et al., 2010). Rapid botanical surveys by teams from Kew and the National Herbarium of Cameroon were instigated between 2004 and 2006 from Fosimondi, reached via Dschang and Baranka. A fourth survey from Bechati, reached via Dschang and Menji (Fontem), was launched in September 2006.
Although the main aim of the THWS is the conservation of primates, such as the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), as well as other animals, the threatened and fragmented submontane forest habitat critical to the survival of these species is also of great botanical importance (Harvey et al., 2010). While all remaining forest of the Lebialem highlands and neighbouring Bamboutos mountains is likely valuable, the THWS has been repeatedly surveyed between 2004 and 2006, culminating in the publication of a Conservation Checklist (Harvey et al., 2010). This revealed numerous threatened plant species and also some local endemics. Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary was established after extensive consultations between local stakeholders, the government Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife (MINFOF) and the Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF, a Cameroon NGO). It represents one part of a wider effort to save the remaining forest habitat in the Lebialem Highlands while enabling sustainable development for local people (Nkemngu, 2017).

Botanical significance

There has been very little botanical collecting in the Lebialem Highlands prior to the work of ERuDeF, RBG Kew and the National Herbarium of Cameroon, particularly through Barthélemy Tchiengué, from 2003 onwards (Harvey et al., 2010). Therefore, compared to other important highland areas in the west of the country, such as Bakossi, Mount Oku and Mount Cameroon, relatively little is known to science about the flora of this area. The neighbouring Bamboutos mountains have been better studied historically but have subsequently lost much of their natural vegetation. Forest appears to be rapidly diminishing too within the Lebialem highlands (Harvey et al., 2010; Nkemengu, 2017). However, the aforementioned rapid surveys have identified over fifty species which are considered threatened by the IUCN Red List criteria, with 34 of these already published on the Red List and approximately one in ten of all species identified in Harvey et al. (2010) considered threatened. The surveys were mainly conducted along a transect through the area now demarcated as the THWS from Fosimondi village in the east at the top of the west facing scarp slope at c. 2000 m altitude, down to around 200 m at Bechati in the west. Most of the threatened species collected are from submontane forest where the steep gradients contributes to a rich diversity of species. The primary lowland forest at the western edge has been less well surveyed, as have the northern and southern parts of the site. Therefore many more species are likely yet to be found. As well as being an important sanctuary for many threatened species, the site also appears to be an interesting link in our ecological knowledge of the Cameroon Highlands, revealing apparent differences between the Bamenda Highlands to the north and the Mount Kupe area to the south.
Harvey et al. (2010) listed six taxa as strictly endemic to the site. Of these Argocoffeopsis fossimondi, now Kupeantha fossimondi (CR, Harvey et al., 2010; Cheek et al., 2018; Cheek, 2017) is the only species so far published. However, several other published species are endemic to one or two other sites in the western highlands. For example Heckeldora ledermanii (EN) and Trichostachys petiolata (EN) are also known from the Kupe-Bakossi area while Cincinnobotrys letouzeyi (EN) is known only from THWS and a site near Numba 30 km to the northeast (Cheek, 2015). Although there are relatively few (published) strict endemics, there appear to be a high number of nationally endemic species known from the site. Species collected from Mt Bamboutos, such as Vepris montisbambutensis (CR) known only from the type collected between Baranka and Fossimondi on the edge of the Tofala Hill reserve may also occur here.

Habitat and geology

The Lebialem Highlands constitute the west and south facing slope of the Bamboutos Mountains and are part of the Cameroon Highlands series of volcanic uplands which extend in a northeast direction along a geographic fault line from off-shore islands like Bioko through prominent Cameroonian peaks such as Mount Cameroon, Mount Kupe and Mount Oku. The THWS slopes steeply to the east and north with the highest point around 1900 m in the east and the lowest at c. 200 m in the southwest. In the lower part free draining sandy soils of very low fertility have formed from the ancient, decomposed basement-complex rocks which have been eroded by the topology and high annual rainfall (c. 3–4 m), much of which is concentrated in a single wet season. However, at the top of the slope, the village of Fossimondi is situated on apparently Neogene basalts and trachytes which give rise to moist volcanic soils of moderate fertility (Harvey et al. 2010; Courade et al. 1974; Hawkins and Brunt 1965). Partly for this reason and also due to severe population pressures, the uplands have been targeted for agriculture with crops such as Coffea arabica commonly grown. Cattle are also grazed on the high lava plateau. However, farming on the steep slopes has led to severe erosion in the western highlands of Cameroon (Lambi & Ndenecho et al., 2009).
The interaction of the steep scarp slope with the moist south-westerly winds of the wet season and the arid north-easterly harmattan, as well as the variable geology and erosion, likely create multiple contrasting microclimates which favour high species diversity and endemicity.

Conservation issues

The uplands of western Cameroon have suffered severe deforestation, primarily for logging and agriculture. Farming of these highlands may have been practised for several thousand years (Vansina et al. 1984; Tamura, 1999), and therefore some disturbance of natural habitat is likely ancient. However, the pace of deforestation has hugely increased in the last century. Overall, Cheek et al. (2000) estimated that over 95% of the original montane and submontane forest above 1500 m had been lost in the nearby Bamenda highlands. This deforestation is ongoing with forest losses at Kilum-Ijum and at Dom-Kejodsam estimated as respectively 25% over 8 years and 50% over 15 year (Cheek et al., 2000; Cheek et al., 2010). The Bamboutos mountains, of which the Lebialem Highlands form the western slope, have been largely denuded of natural vegetation under severe population pressure and agricultural conversion. Increasingly even steep slopes that have hitherto survived as forest are also coming under the plough despite the difficult, often dangerous terrain and resultant soil erosion, landslides and rapid loss of fertility (Tchiengué 2010; Nkemngu 2017). While quantitative data is lacking for the Lebialem highlands, forest loss appears to be high and ongoing. At the site itself, Tchiengué (2010) reports that on subsequent annual visits areas that had been forested had been converted to farmland, including the area where the Lebialem endemic Coffeeopsis fosimondi was collected. Further dramatic losses on the slopes were observed on a visit in 2016 (B. Tchiengué, 2021, pers. comm. 7 October). All forest patches around had been converted to agricultural crops such as potatoes and carrots. Overgrazing, mining and infrastructure construction in and around the site are also reported (Nkemngu 2017). Agricultural pressure is apparently less in the lower, infertile areas of the site to the west, although here there is also logging and semi-natural palm oil harvesting (Harvey et al. 2010; Linnarz 2017).
ERuDeF, supported by the Rainforest Trust USA and a member of BGCI, has been active in promoting conservation at the site and in the wider region, gaining official status for the THWS in 2014 following long consultations and sensitisation efforts. Although MINFOF have supported protection of the forest, it has been difficult to achieve this on the ground. Harvey et al (2010) report support from local villagers who were said to value the forest but not all villages have apparently been easily convinced of the merits of the sanctuary despite consultation or because of perceived failings in this process, or simply due to the lack of alternatives for sustaining livelihoods (Nkemngu 2017). Linnarz (2017) reports that the southern part of the THWS has little natural forest remaining and that the northern part is also considerably encroached. Tragically, the gorilla population for which the sanctuary was primarily established, was reported to be severely diminished with gorillas confined to a central 6.5km patch and only 2–4 gorillas estimated to be remaining from observed evidence of nesting (Linnarz 2017). Numerous signs of shooting and snaring for bushmeat were found and farming activity was found even in the most remote parts of the forest. The incident at Pinyin village in 2013 when a silverback gorilla was killed by a group of angry villagers shows that at least some local peoples remain unconvinced about the value of wildlife conservation (Nkembe & Leke, 2013). Drills and elephants have also diminished but 300 chimpanzees are still known to persist in the forest and may remain the best hope for preserving the vegetation on which they depend (Nkemngu, 2017). ERuDeF's ambitious projects to establish a Mone forest corridor and to protect the much larger Lebialem-Mone forest landscape bode well for the conservation of viable populations of threatened plants which, like the primates, risk being cut off from other populations. Local awareness of the importance of the forest in protecting against soil erosion has also helped drive local conservation action such as tree-planting. Subsequent to THWS being officially recognised, ERuDeF has been involved in consultation and drafting of a management plan, forest restoration and creation of habitat corridors linking the site to other remaining habitat. The separatist conflict which began in 2017 and has been active in the Lebialem area has interrupted conservation efforts but may also have slowed habitat loss in the forest.

Ecosystem services

Because of the steep gradient, the forest at THWS plays a vital role in preventing soil erosion, landslides and silting of water supply, problems which are particularly serious in this area when farmers resort to such slopes. The retention of these forest soils, as well as the above-ground biomass, is also of importance to the continued sequestration of CO2. The site is surrounded by 10 villages which utilise (and probably overexploit) the forest for wood, timber and non-timber resources such as medicines, food and bushmeat (Nkemngu, 2017). The exceptionally rare and critically endangered Ternstroemia cameroonensis is a medicinal plant which may have its sole remaining population a little outside the site boundary, higher up the mountain (Cheek et al., 2017). The forest also supports severely threatened primates such as the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan trogylodites ellioti) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) as well as forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and birds such as rock fowl (Grey-necked picarthates) and Bannerman’s turaco (Touraco bannermani). Through the work of ERuDeF and its UK partner the Cross River Gorilla Project with their “Gorilla Club” project, the forest also helps supports environmental education activities both in Cameroon and the UK (CRGP, 2021).

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Louis Nkembe, ERUDEF

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Barthélemy Tchiengué, Institute of Agronomic Research and Development, Herbier National Camerounais, Yaoundé, Cameroon

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr. A(i) False True True False False
Allanblackia gabonensis (Pellegr.) Bamps A(i) True False False False False
Allophylus bullatus Radlk. A(i), A(iii) True False True False False
Allophylus conraui Gilg ex Radlk. A(i) True True True False True
Aneilema silvaticum Brenan A(i) True True True False False
Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart A(i) True False False False False
Anthocleista scandens Hook.f. A(i) True False True False False
Argocoffeopsis fosimondi Tchiengué & Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Baillonella toxisperma Pierre A(i) False False False False True
Begonia adpressa Sosef A(i) True True True False False
Begonia oxyanthera Warb. A(i) True False False False False
Begonia preussii Warb. A(i) True False False False False
Begonia pseudoviola Gilg A(i) True True True False False
Brachystephanus giganteus Champl. A(i) True False True False False
Bulbophyllum nigericum Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Chassalia laikomensis Cheek A(i), A(iii) True False False False False
Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Dissotis bamendae Brenan & Keay A(i) True True False False False
Eragrostis camerunensis W.D.Clayton A(i) True False True False False
Garcinia kola Heckel A(i) False False False False True
Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh. A(i) True False True False False
Heckeldora ledermannii (Harms) J.J. de Wilde A(i) True False True False False
Impatiens letouzeyi Grey-Wilson A(i) True True True False False
Leonardoxa africana (Baill.) Aubrév. subsp. letouzeyi McKey A(i) True True True False False
Leptonychia kamerunensis Engl. & K.Krause A(i) True True True False False
Lobelia columnaris Hook.f. A(i) False False False False False
Magnistipula conrauana Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Myrianthus fosi Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f. A(i) True True True False False
Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f. A(i) False False True False False
Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Pavetta hookeriana Hiern var. hookeriana A(i) False False False False False
Polystachya bicalcarata Kraenzl. A(i) True True False False False
Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana A(i) True True False False False
Pyrenacantha longirostrata Villiers A(i) True True True False False
Quassia sanguinea Cheek & Jongkind A(i) True True False False False
Rhabdotosperma densifolia (Hook.f.) Hartl A(i) True True False False False
Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham A(i) True True True False False
Salacia lebrunii Wilczek A(i) True True True False False
Salacia lehmbachii Loes var. pes-ranulae N.Hallé A(i) True True True False False
Schefflera hierniana Harms A(i) True True True False False
Tricalysia elmar Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Trichostachys petiolata Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv. A(i) True True True False False

Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allanblackia gabonensis (Pellegr.) Bamps

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allophylus bullatus Radlk.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allophylus conraui Gilg ex Radlk.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Aneilema silvaticum Brenan

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anthocleista scandens Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Argocoffeopsis fosimondi Tchiengué & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Baillonella toxisperma Pierre

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Begonia adpressa Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia oxyanthera Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia preussii Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia pseudoviola Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brachystephanus giganteus Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum nigericum Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chassalia laikomensis Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dissotis bamendae Brenan & Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Eragrostis camerunensis W.D.Clayton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia kola Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Heckeldora ledermannii (Harms) J.J. de Wilde

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens letouzeyi Grey-Wilson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leonardoxa africana (Baill.) Aubrév. subsp. letouzeyi McKey

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leptonychia kamerunensis Engl. & K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lobelia columnaris Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Magnistipula conrauana Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Myrianthus fosi Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta hookeriana Hiern var. hookeriana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya bicalcarata Kraenzl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pyrenacantha longirostrata Villiers

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Quassia sanguinea Cheek & Jongkind

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhabdotosperma densifolia (Hook.f.) Hartl

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia lebrunii Wilczek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia lehmbachii Loes var. pes-ranulae N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Schefflera hierniana Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tricalysia elmar Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichostachys petiolata Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland No value
Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland No value

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying Low Past, likely to return
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture High Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting Medium Ongoing - trend unknown

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Past, likely to return

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Sanctuary protected/conservation area matches IPA 100

Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary

Protected area type:
Wildlife Sanctuary
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
100

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Site management plan in place Management plan was in the process of consulation... No value No value

Site management plan in place

Management plan was in the process of consulation...
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

IUCN, 2019

IUCN Red List

Available online

Cheek, M., Onana, J.-M. & Pollard, B.J., 2000

The Plants of Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge, Cameroon, A Conservation Checklist.

Harvey Y. H., Pollard B. J., Darbyshire I., Onana J.-M. & Cheek M., 2004

The plants of Bali Ngemba Forest Reserve, Cameroon: a conservation checklist

Onana J.-M. & Cheek M., 2011

Red Data Book of the flowering plants of Cameroon

Cheek M, Alvarez-Aguirre, M.G., Grall, A., Sonke, B., Howes, M.-J.R. & Larridon. I., 2018

Kupeantha (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae), a new genus from Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea

PLoS ONE, Vol 13, page(s) e0199324

Linnarz, S., 2017

Survey of the Cross River Gorilla at the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary in Cameroon

Gorilla Journal, Vol 54, page(s) 19-21

Harvey, Y., Tchiengué, B. & Cheek, M., 2010

The Plants of Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon. A Conservation Checklist

Nkemngu, A., 2017

NGO takes action to save great apes in Cameroon’s Lebialem Highlands

Mongabay Available online

Nkembe, L. & Leke, R., 2013

Cameroon loses a Cross River Gorilla

Gorilla Journal, Vol 46, page(s) 9-10 Available online

Cheek, M., Tchiengue, B., Tacham, W.N., 2017

Ternstroemia cameroonensis (Ternstroemiaceae), a new medicinally important species of montane tree, nearly extinct in the Highlands of Cameroon

Blumea, Vol 62(1), page(s) 53-57

Courade, G., 1974

Commentaire des cartes. Atlas régional. Ouest 1.

Hawkins, P. & Brunt, M., 1965

The soil and ecology of west Cameroon. Vol. 1, Part 2

Onana, J.M., 2011

Vascular Plants of Cameroon: Taxonomic Checklist. In: Flore Du Cameroon, Occasional Volume, IRAD-National Herbarium of Cameroon, Yaounde, 195.

Tchiengué, B., 2010

Threats to the Lebialem Highlands. In: The Plants of the Lebialem Highlands (Bechati-Fosimondi Besali), Cameroon. A Conservation Checklist

Lambi, C.M & Ndenecho, E.N., 2009

Ecology and natural resource development in the western highlands of Cameroon: Issues in natural resource management

Cheek, M., 2015.

Cincinnobotrys letouzeyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T202777A2752808.

Available online

Cheek, M., 2017

Argocoffeopsis fosimondi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T110079335A110079337

Available online

CRGP, 2021

Cross River Gorilla Project

Available online

Vansina, J., 1984

Western Bantu Expansion

The Journal of African History, Vol 25(2), page(s) 129-145

Tamura, T., 1999

Late quaternary landscape evolution in the West Cameroon highlands and the Adamaoua plateau in Lanfranchi Raymond (ed.), Schwartz Dominique (ed.) Paysages quaternaires de l'Afrique centrale atlantique

Paysages quaternaires de l'Afrique centrale atlantique (pub. ORSTOM), page(s) 298–313

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy, Louis Nkembe, Martin Cheek, Barthélemy Tchiengué (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, Lebialem Highlands (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/tofala-hill-wildlife-sanctuary-lebialem-highlands-2/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)