Rumpi Hills

CMNTIPA036
Rumpi Hills

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.90000 N, 9.15000 E

Area: 932km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Rumpi Hills qualifies as a potential IPA through criterion A(i) on the basis of numerous globally threatened plant species with important populations at the site. Of these, Impatiens grandisepala, Kuloa (Ocotea) ikonyokpe, Craterispermum rumpianum and Ledermanniella prasina (VU) are particularly noteworthy. The site would also likely qualify under criterion C as one of the best national sites for evergreen lowland tropical rainforest and/or submontane rainforest.

Site description

Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve was established originally in 1937 (Forestry Ordinances 38 of 1937 and 16756/79 of 2 July 1941). Despite proposals for a IUCN category IV Wildlife Sanctuary, there has been no formal change of status since (Sainge, 2016; Protected Planet, 2021). The forest reserve of 454 km2 is horseshoe shaped, with the two arms facing west and sloping downhill, one terminating at Mundemba and the other where the Makunge tributary joins the Melange river in the region of Ekondo Titi. The arch of the horseshoe is in the northeast and at higher altitude, with Mount Rata, the highest point in the region at 1750 m, part of an adjacent but separate 39 km2 forest reserve to the east (MINFOF & WRI, 2020). The latter is included as part of the IPA proposed here. A number of important species listed here are recorded only from areas just outside the reserve boundaries, mainly to the north and east. While it is possible many of these also occur inside we have included additional forest to the north and east to incorporate known locations. The area within the concavity of the horseshoe has also been included within the proposed IPA, increasing the total area to 932 km2. While there is little data from this area and much of it is currently demarcated as a council production forest in the process of classification (MINFOF & WRI, 2021), this area was included with the rest of the reserve as "intact forest landscape" (Potapov et al., 2016) and appears to have changed little since then (Hansen et al., 2013, updated 2020). Consequently, there is reason to expect very high plant diversity from this area too.

Botanical significance

Like nearby Korup National Park, Rumpi Hills lie within a very high rainfall area of the Biafran rain forest block (Letouzey, 1968), a part of the Guineo-Congolian Regional Centre of Endemism (White, 1983). It is probably the best example in West or Central Africa of a forest altitudinal gradient from lowland rainforest near sea level to upper submontane or montane cloud forest at 1750 m (D.Thomas, 2022, pers. comm. 18 April; Sainge et al., 2018). Together with Korup National Park and Mokoko forest the site is also probably the most important remaining area of low altitude rainforest in this ecologically important zone; areas like Southern Bakundu and other low foothills around Mt Cameroon are badly degraded. It is one of few areas of "Intact Forest Landscape" in western Cameroon (Potapov et al., 2016; Greenpeace et al., 2021). The ravines, rapids and waterfalls of the Mana river and tributaries to the north of the existing reserve and east of Korup National Park are of particular significance for rare rheophyte species such as the local endemic Ledermanniella prasina.
Although only partially surveyed for plants, research by Letouzey (1968, 1986), Thomas (1996), Lachenaud et al. (2013) and Sainge et al. (2018) indicates very high diversity and many endemic or nearly endemic species. Sainge et al. (2018) identified 617 morphospecies >= 1 cm at dbh from 25 one hectare plots representing seven distinct areas of the park from the ends and the apex of the horseshoe but without sampling most of the area in between. Of these, 311 trees >= 10 cm at dbh were identified to species level. The area is likely very high in submontane endemics, vascular/non-vascular epiphytes, and species associated with ravines and waterfalls (Thomas, D., 2021, pers. comm. 18 April).
Five threatened species of Begonia and several of Psychotria, both often indicators of important refugial areas, are recorded. Three plant species are considered narrowly endemic to the site, Kuloa (Ocotea) ikonyokpe, Ledermanniella prasina (VU) and Craterispermum rumpianum (CR). Other notable threatened species include Impatiens grandisepala (CR), Korupodendron songweanum (EN), Gambeya korupensis (NE), Piptostigma submontanum (EN) and Deinbollia unijuga (EN). Impatiens grandisepala (CR) was recorded (Satabie 250) from along the path between Butu and Dikome balue via Lokando, around 3.5 km east of the Mount Rata reserve. This is only the second collection made of this exceptionally rare, species. Pavetta baconiella (VU) is included here but needs confirmation because the only Rumpi record, a plot recording by Sainge et al. (T15337) without an available specimen, is from 1,700 m, while the only other record with altitudinal data was at 50 m at nearby Korup. Justicia leucoxiphus (EN) is also rare and otherwise recorded only from the Bakossi area but the "Mbu Bolomi" location is probably too far (c.10 km) northeast of the reserve to justify extending our proposed IPA boundary further. Deinbollia angustifolia (VU) has been recorded from close to the western tip of the reserve and therefore may potentially also occur within its boundaries.

Habitat and geology

Rumpi Hills has a two-season climate with a dry season between December and March with rainfall peaking in August and averaging 4933 mm p.a. at Dikome Balue 1,100 m above sea level. Sainge et al (2016) suggest highest rainfall is in the southwest corner. At Mundemba to the west of the reserve, mean rainfall averaged 5,272 mm for the period 1973-1994, with annual totals of 4,027–6,368 mm; the months of July and August both averaged over 900 mm (Mukete et al., 2018; Chuyong et al., 2000). Mean temperature is reported as around 22 degrees C (Sainge et al., 2020). Thomas (2022, pers. comm. 18 April) suggests that the seasonal climate may be mitigated by the ampitheatre-like Rumpi topology with high cloud-cover and more dry-season precipitation making it closer to true aseasonal, equatorial climate. Plant and especially epiphyte diversity would therefore be expected to be especially high.
The geological map of Yerima & Van Ranst (adapted from Nougier, 1980) indicates the Rumpi hills lying on a large basalt area. However, Ayonghe et al. (1999) suggests a more complex geology, with the site situated at the edge of a volcanic zone where pre-Cambrian basement metamorphic rocks are overlain successively by Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediments (sandstones and shales), which outcrop in the extreme southeast, and Tertiary volcanics (basalts, trachytes and tuffs) which underlie the elevated northeastern area including Mount Rata. Sainge et al. (2019) also indicate an area of forest on giant basalt rocks in the northwestern part of the reserve. While volcanic rocks underlie the hilly areas, extensive recent faulting has apparently dictated the current topography of mountainous plateaus dissected by narrow valleys (Birdlife International, 2020; Ayonghe et al., 1999).
Soils are mainly brown to yellow sandy loams and clays derived from sandstone, shales and volcanic material (Ayonghe et al., 1999, Etongo & Glover, Yerima & Rans 2005; Etongo & Glover, 2011). Impermeable clay layers are intercalated with permeable sandstones and make the terrain prone to landslides (Ayonghe et al., 1999).
Sainge (2016) and Letouzey (1985) recognise several vegetation types at the site, mainly variations on evergreen lowland rainforest (with infrequent emergents and many species and individuals of Leguminosae, Annonaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Lecythidaceae), and submontane cloud forest with abundant epiphytes and smaller trees and shrubs (particularly Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Clusiaceae, Meliaceae, Olacaceae and Salicaceae). A more open, lower and florally distinct montane (or upper submontane) vegetation is also apparent in the Mount Rata area (O. Lachenaud, 2021, pers. comm. 24 June). A distinct lowland forest on basalt rock with abundant Crateranthus talbotii has also been identified in the west (Sainge, 2016).

Conservation issues

As elsewhere in Cameroon, the main threats to the plantlife are logging and clearance (often with fire) for small scale agriculture (Beckline et al., 2018; Birdlife International, 2020; Onana & Cheek, 2011). Agro-industrial palm oil plantations have also become a major concern, creating an abrupt border at the edge of the forest, sometimes encroaching boundaries, and increasing population pressure and access to the area (Kimengsi & Lambi, 2015). Plantations have existed here since the German colonial period but development has accelerated recently (Kimengsi & Lambi, 2015).
Sainge et al. (2016) estimated that less than 10% of the original reserve had been encroached by agriculture. Other assessments from 2013 and 2018 (Birdlife International, 2020; Key Biodiversity Areas Partnership, 2020) report extensive degradation from logging and from agricultural encroachment, although the forest was considered better preserved around Mount Rata. According to Sainge (2019) there are no villages within the reserve area, but 12 within 3 km of the boundaries. However, other sources report 52 temporarily occupied offshoot villages and 19 farm settlements within the reserve, as well as other uses and claims to reserve land (Wikipedia, 2020).
To the southwest, there is considerable development threatening the forest beyond and potentially within the reserve. Large palm oil plantations are established at the ends of both arms of the reserve, while inside the horseshoe shape, a 34,400 ha Mundemba council forest is apparently in the process of being classified as a production forest (MINFOF & WRI, 2020). The N16 road to Ekondo Titi and Mundenba also provides good access to this area from the coast as well as Kumba and further east, and appears to cut across the extreme southwestern tip of the reserve near Mundemba (Beckline et al., 2018). To the north much of the area between Korup National Park and the reserve was targeted by the SGSOC/Herakles palm oil concession which provoked an international reaction and was downscaled and apparently halted but not revoked (Kupsch et al., 2014; MINFOF & WRI, 2020). This area has been described as having "exceptionally high numbers of threatened and endemic tree species" and as meeting FSC High Conservation Value (HCV) criteria for categories 1.2 and 1.3, relating to threatened species and endemic species respectively (Kupsch et al., 2014). The area might also be included in the TIPA proposed here but unfortunately specimen data from the survey does not appear to be available and the released data does not make it possible to locate particular species to the Ndian concession block which adjoins the Rumpi reserve.
Largescale palm oil development is also leading to additional small scale palm oil farming through increased availability of seed (Beckline et al., 2018). This may encroach the reserve more insidiously.
There have been some efforts at reforestation at villages just ouside the edges of the reserve (Sainge et al. 2016).
As with other proposals at Mt Kupe, Manwenguba, Ebo and Tchabal Mbabo, the drive for a more strictly protected wildlife sanctuary appears to have stalled (Sainge et al., 2019).

Ecosystem services

The site supports important fauna, including the endemic shrew Myosorex rumpii (EN) and endemic amphibian Alexteroon jynx (CR) (Kennerley, 2016; IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, 2018). Drills, Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) and other primate species are recorded, along with forest elephants (CR), many reptiles and amphibians, and 198 bird species including Kupeornis gilberti (VU), Picathartes oreas (VU) and Malaconotus gladiator (VU) (Sainge, 2016; Birdlife International, 2020).
The Rumpi Hills contribute important drainage basins to several rivers: to the northwest, tributaries join the Ndian river which then curves southwards via Korup National Park to empty into the Rio del Rey estuary. Sainge (2016) suggests tributaries also ultimately connect the area to the Congo, Cross, Chad, Benue, Mungo, Wouri and Sanaga, although the complex hydrography makes it hard to identify these connections. To the south various rivers also emerge via the Moko, Melange and, to the southeast, the Meme. The forests of the reserve help protect the drainage basins in this very high rainfall area, maintaining water quality and limiting flooding, silting and sedimentation downstream.
Many villages surround the site, some located within the larger area circumscribed here. Three ethnic groups, the Ngolo, Bima, and the Balues are demographically dominant (Mukete et al., 2018). Villagers utilise the forest for various timber and non-timber forest products (Etongo & Glover, 2012; Sainge, 2016; Mukete et al., 2018b).
Landslides have occurred in swarms at nearby Bafaka and are a danger in the area due to high rainfall and interbedded layers of sandstone and shale or clay which form sliding surfaces (Ayonghe et al., 1999). Natural forest cover on sloping areas is likely to mitigate the danger from such processes, particularly at settlements like Dikome-balue which lies at the foot of Mount Rata.
The area has high potential for tourism, with the variety of forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls, creating more scenic views than at Korup (Thomas, D. 2022, pers. comm. 18 April).

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Olivier Lachenaud, Meise Botanic Garden

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Piptostigma submontanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur, A(i) True True True False False
Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Anthocleista scandens Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Begonia adpressa Sosef A(i) True False True False False
Begonia bonus-henricus J.J.de Wilde A(i) True True True False False
Begonia duncan-thomasii Sosef A(i) True True True False False
Begonia oxyanthera Warb. A(i) True True True False False
Crateranthus talbotii Baker f. A(i) True True True False False
Korupodendron songweanum Litt & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Strychnos staudtii Gilg A(i) True False True False False
Talbotiella bakossiensis Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau A(i) True True True False False
Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana A(i) False False True False False
Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Aulacocalyx mapiana Sonké & Bridson A(i), A(iii) True False True False False
Begonia prismatocarpa Hook. subsp. delobata Sosef A(i) True True True False False
Brachystephanus giganteus Champl. A(i) True True True False False
Calochone acuminata Keay A(i) True True True False False
Deinbollia unijuga D.W.Thomas A(i) True True True False False
Impatiens grandisepala Grey-Wilson A(i) True True True False False
Magnistipula conrauana Engl. A(i) True False True False True
Mendoncia camerounensis Breteler & Wieringa A(i) True False False False False
Myrianthus fosi Cheek A(i) True True True False True
Psychotria darwiniana Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Rinorea fausteana Achound. A(i) True True True False False
Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea bullata Zemagho, O.Lachenaud & Sonké A(i), A(iv) True False True False False
Uvariopsis korupensis Gereau & Kenfack A(i) True False False False False
Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr. A(i) True False True False False
Quassia sanguinea Cheek & Jongkind A(i) True False True False False
Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek A(i) True False False False False
Pavetta baconiella Bremek. A(i) True True True False False
Memecylon candidum, Melastomataceae A(i) True False True False False
Manilkara lososiana A(i) True True True False False
Garcinia staudtii Engl. A(i) True False True False False
Craterispermum rumpianum Taedoumg & Hamon A(i) True True True True False
Chassalia laikomensis Cheek A(i), A(iii) False False True False False
Gaertnera letouzeyi Malcomber A(i) True True True False False
Oxyanthus okuensis Cheek & Sonké A(i) True True True False False
Mussaenda epiphytica Cheek A(i) True False True False False
Psychotria arborea Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria retrofracta O.Lachenaud A(i), A(iv) True True True False False
Tricalysia elmar Cheek A(i) True False True False False
Trichostachys interrupta K.Schum. A(i) True True True False False
Aframomum tchoutoui D.J.Harris & Wortley A(i) True True True False False
Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin A(i) False False True False False
Begonia preussii Warb. A(i) True False False False False
Beilschmiedia jacques-felixii Robyns & R.Wilczek A(i) True True True False False
Cola mamboana Kenfack & Sainge A(i) True True True False False
Cola megalophylla Brenan & Keay A(i) True True True False False
Cola suboppositifolia Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Diospyros korupensis Gosline A(i) True True True False False
Gastrodia africana Kraenzl. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Pradosia spinosa Ewango & Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Berlinia hollandii Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True True True False False
Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f. A(i) True False False False False
Ledermanniella prasina J.J.Schenk & D.W.Thomas A(i) True True True True False
Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart A(i) True False False False False
Bulbophyllum porphyrostachys Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Chassalia petitiana Piesschaert A(i) True True True False False
Loesenera talbotii Baker f. A(i) True False False False False
Octoknema bakossiensis Gosline & Malécot A(i) True True True False False
Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl. A(i) True False False False False
Talbotiella korupensis Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True True True False False
Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. A(i) False False True False False
Afzelia pachyloba Harms A(i) True False False False False
Microcos rumpi Cheek A(iii) True True True True False
Cuviera trilocularis Hiern A(iv) True True True False False
Sabicea urbaniana Wernham A(iv) True True True False False

Piptostigma submontanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur,

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anthocleista scandens Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia adpressa Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia bonus-henricus J.J.de Wilde

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia duncan-thomasii Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia oxyanthera Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Crateranthus talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Korupodendron songweanum Litt & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos staudtii Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Talbotiella bakossiensis Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aulacocalyx mapiana Sonké & Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia prismatocarpa Hook. subsp. delobata Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brachystephanus giganteus Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calochone acuminata Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deinbollia unijuga D.W.Thomas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens grandisepala Grey-Wilson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Magnistipula conrauana Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Mendoncia camerounensis Breteler & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Myrianthus fosi Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Psychotria darwiniana Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea fausteana Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea bullata Zemagho, O.Lachenaud & Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis korupensis Gereau & Kenfack

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Quassia sanguinea Cheek & Jongkind

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta baconiella Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Memecylon candidum, Melastomataceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Manilkara lososiana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Craterispermum rumpianum Taedoumg & Hamon

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chassalia laikomensis Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Gaertnera letouzeyi Malcomber

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oxyanthus okuensis Cheek & Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mussaenda epiphytica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria arborea Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria retrofracta O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tricalysia elmar Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichostachys interrupta K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum tchoutoui D.J.Harris & Wortley

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia preussii Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Beilschmiedia jacques-felixii Robyns & R.Wilczek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola mamboana Kenfack & Sainge

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola megalophylla Brenan & Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola suboppositifolia Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diospyros korupensis Gosline

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Gastrodia africana Kraenzl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pradosia spinosa Ewango & Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Berlinia hollandii Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ledermanniella prasina J.J.Schenk & D.W.Thomas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum porphyrostachys Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chassalia petitiana Piesschaert

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Loesenera talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Octoknema bakossiensis Gosline & Malécot

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Talbotiella korupensis Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia pachyloba Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Microcos rumpi Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cuviera trilocularis Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea urbaniana Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Forestry No value
Agriculture (arable) No value

Forestry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture High Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming High Ongoing - increasing
Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads High Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity High Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve Forest Reserve (production) IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 500

Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve

Protected area type:
Forest Reserve (production)
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
500

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve Key Biodiversity Area IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 500
Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve Important Bird Area IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 500
Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve Alliance for Zero Extinction Site IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 500

Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
500

Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
500

Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve

Protected area:
Alliance for Zero Extinction Site
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
500

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

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New records for the flora of Cameroon, including a new species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) and range extensions for some rare species

Plant Ecology and Evolution, Vol 146 (1), page(s) 121–133

White, A.F., 1983

The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa

MINFOF (Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife) & WRI (World Resources Instiute), 2020

Cameroon's Forest Estate December 2020 poster

Available online

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Korup Forest Dynamics Plot, Cameroon

Forest diversity and dynamism: findings from a large-scale plot network (pub. University of Chicago Press), page(s) 506–516

Sainge, N. M., 2016

Patterns of Distribution and Endemism of Plants in the Cameroon Mountains. A case study of Protected Areas in Cameroon: Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve (RHFR) and the Kimbi Fungom National Park (KFNP).

Available online

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Assessing the drivers of land use change in the Rumpi hills forest protected area, Cameroon

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Mukete, B., Sun,Y., Etongo, D., Ekoungoulou, R., Folega, F., Sajjad, S., Ngoe, M. & Ndiaye, G., 2018

Household characteristics and forest resource dependence in the Rumpi hills of Cameroon

Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, Vol 16(3), page(s) 2755-2779

Sainge, M., Nchu, F. & Peterson, A., 2020

Tree diversity patterns, above-ground biomass and carbon assessment along elevational gradient in a tropical forest of the cameroon volcanic line

Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol 52(6), page(s) 2101-2123

Sainge, S., Lyonga, N., Mbatchou, G., Kenfack, D., Nchu, F. & Peterson, A., 2019

Vegetation, floristic composition and structure of a tropical montane forest in Cameroon

Bothalia, Vol 49(1), page(s) 1-12

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Botanical Survey of the Rumpi Hills and Nta Ali with special focus on the submontane zone above 1,000 m elevation. Final report to GTZ.

Kimengsi, J. N. & Lambi, C.M., 2015

Pamol Plantations Plc: Prelude to a looming population problem in Ekondo-Titi sub-division, South West Region of Cameroon

Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Vol 17(3), page(s) 79-95

Potapov, P., Hansen, M. C., Laestadius L., Turubanova S., Yaroshenko A., Thies C., Smith W., Zhuravleva I., Komarova A., Minnemeyer S., Esipova E., 2016

The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013

Science Advances, 2017, page(s) 3:e1600821

Greenpeace, University of Maryland, World Resources Institute and Transparent World, 2021

“Intact Forest Landscapes 2000/2013/2016”

Available online

Hansen, M., Potapov, P., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S., Goetz, S., Loveland, T., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L, Justice, C. & Townshend, R., 2013

High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change

Science, Vol 342(6160), page(s) 850-853 Available online

Kennerley, R., 2016

Myosorex rumpii (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14113A115120529

Available online

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, 2018

Alexteroon jynx. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T56088A95747724

Available online

Wikipedia, 2020

Rumpi Hills Wildlife Reserve, Wikipedia entry

Available online

Ayonghe, S.N., Mafany, G.T., Ntasin, E. & Samalang, P., 1999

Seismically Activated Swarm of Landslides, Tension Cracks, and a Rockfall after Heavy Rainfall in Bafaka, Cameroon

Natural Hazards, Vol 19, page(s) 13–27

Kupsch, D., Serge, B.K. & Waltert, M., 2014

Biodiversity, carbon stock and market value assessment for the SGSOC project area, Southwest region, Cameroon

Report submitted to World Wide Fund for Nature, Germany, and Greenpeace International Available online

Etongo, D. & Glover, E., 2012

Participatory ResourceMapping for Livelihood Values Derived fromthe Forest in Ekondo-Titi Subregion, Cameroon: A Gender Analysis

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Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy, Olivier Lachenaud, Martin Cheek (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Rumpi Hills (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/rumpi-hills/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)