Nimba Mountains

Les Monts Nimba

GUITIPA016
Nimba Mountains

Country: Guinea

Administrative region: Lola (Prefecture)

Central co-ordinates: 7.62222 N, 8.41 W

Area: 149.2km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, A(iii)Site contains one or more highly restricted endemic species that are potentially threatened, B(i)Site contains a high number of species within defined habitat or vegetation types, C(iii)Site contains nationally threatened or restricted habitat or vegetation types, AND/OR habitats that have severely declined in extent nationally

IPA assessment rationale

The Nimba Mountain range is an area of exceptional biodiversity globally. It has over 1,400 plant species making it the richest documented botanical site in West Africa. It has plants globally endemic to the Nimba Mountains such as Osbeckia porteresii, Sporobolus pauciflorus, Impatiens nzoana, and Begonia quadrialata subsp. nimbaensis. At least 40 threatened species, and species with restricted disjunct distributions e.g. (Justicia jamisonii) also occur. Although it is recognised as a Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site, the rare plant species and habitats of the range are still threatened.

Site description

The Nimba Mountains are situated in the south-east of Guinea, in Lola Prefecture. The range extends into Liberia and Ivory Coast. The highest peak in Guinea is part of Nimba and reaches 1,752m above sea-level. The area of Nimba in Guinea covers 149.2km² and was protected in 1944. The majority (134.1km²) is recognised as a World Heritage Site and has been a core area of the Nimba Mountains Biosphere Reserve since 1980. Due to their height, age, and isolation, the Nimba Mountains are exceptionally rich in flora and fauna, with many rare and range-restricted species, including a few species endemic to the Nimba Mountains. The slopes of the mountains are forested and there is submontane grassland above this, on mainly ferralitic itabirites that have undergone various degrees of leaching of its alumina-silicate components. The high-altitude lateritic (ferralitic) bowal grasslands, and submontane forest are both recognised Threatened Habitats of Guinea.
The area is locally managed by the Centre for the Management of the Environment of the Nimba and Simandou Mountains (CEGENS).

Botanical significance

Due to the height and isolation of the Nimba Mountains, they are home to many rare and range-restricted species, including a few endemic to the mountain and others endemic to Guinea. Recent studies have resulted in over 1,400 plant species being recorded in the Guinean portion (pers. obs. Suter, 2018), making it the richest site in Guinea for plant species. At least 40 globally threatened species are known, though this is likely to increase as more IUCN assessments are made. The submontane forests have plants globally endemic to the Nimba Mountains, such as Osbeckia porteresii, Sporobolus pauciflorus, Impatiens nzoana, and Begonia quadrialata subsp. nimbaensis. The submontane grassland has threatened species found both at Nimba and in the Simandou mountains (e.g. Kotchya lutea, Rhytachne glabra, Bulbostylis guineensis, and Nemum bulbostyloides). There are also species found here that have disjunct distributions across Africa (e.g. Justicia jamisonii and Marsdenia exellii). Some species named ‘nimba’, while first collected at Nimba, have subsequently been found on other parts of the Guinean highlands (e.g. Ixora nimbana, Brachystephanus jaundensis subsp. nimbae, Dolichos nimbaensis, and Monanthotaxis nimbana).

Habitat and geology

The Nimba Mountains represent a rift area of the early Proterozoic era, similar in age and structure to the Simandou range intrusion. The range comprises itabirite, quartzite and other schists emplaced onto a terrain of tonalitic granite-gneiss, migmatite, and sedimentary gneisses. There is a significant iron ore deposit which is in the forms of haematites and goethites enriched from long-term leaching and weathering processes, including thrusting, faulting, folding and thermal processes.

Conservation issues

The mountains are threatened by:
– Intense poaching, suffering from the ‘empty-forest’ syndrome.
– Agricultural encroachment, which has disturbed far more habitat, generally at low altitudes in forest, than any other form of disturbance.
– Regular, anthropogenic, and intense bushfires are a problem at the height of the dry season, when they do not occur naturally.
– Invasive species. In particular, Chromolaena odorata, which has invaded mid-altitude savannahs and forest-edges.
– Grazing of cattle at low elevations at the edge of forest.
– Isolation from neighbouring intact ecosystems due to agriculture, forestry, and roads in the surrounding lowlands.
– Mineral exploration in the mining enclave.
An area of 15.16km² was excised from the colonial Strict Nature Reserve of 1944 for mineral exploration, covering 10% of the Guinean Nimba Mountains, and 4.8% of the entire Nimba range. Within this enclave, an iron-ore mining concession of 6.25km² is currently in late-phase exploration. Mineral exploration has resulted in the construction of access roads and drill pads, affecting up to 0.5km². If a mine were developed, it would result in the disturbance of a several square kilometres of the enclave. For this reason, a detailed environmental impact assessment is underway to avoid and minimise negative impacts, particularly to the adjacent World Heritage Site, and to seek how best to close a future mine and rehabilitate the site for its long-term, subsequent conservation. Since the same habitat types are found within the mining enclave and the World Heritage site, this TIPA area will acknowledge the mining zone as an area of development, with the objective of minimising disturbance to the area as a whole.
Concerns have also been raised by the World Heritage Committee about a road upgrade running between Lola (Guinea) and Danané (Ivory Coast), in the Biosphere Reserve’s Buffer Zone. The World Heritage Committee has retained Nimba on the list of World Heritage Sites in Danger (2018).
Despite controls in place to manage these threats, continuing damage to the World Heritage Site is possible and will inevitably reduce the global populations of some species, and the extent of Threatened Habitats.

Site assessor(s)

Charlotte Couch, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Jamison Suter, Société des Mines de Fer Guinée

Carel Jongkind, Consultant Botanist

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Tarenna hutchinsonii Bremek. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Marsdenia exellii C.E.Norman A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Begonia quadrialata Warb. subsp. nimbaensis Sosef A(i) True True True True False Common
Justicia jamisonii Jongkind & Vollesen A(i) True True False False False Scarce
Bulbostylis guineensis Cherm. ex M.Bodard A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Hypolytrum cacuminum Nelmes A(i) True True True False False Common
Okoubaka aubrevillei Pellegr. & Normand A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Allophylus samoritourei Cheek A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Brachystephanus jaundensis Lindau subsp. nimbae (Heine) I.Darbysh. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. A(i) True False False False True Frequent
Nemum bulbostyloides (Hooper) J.Raynal A(i) True True False False False Common
Albizia ferruginea (Guill. & Perr.) Benth. A(i) True True False False True Frequent
Kotschya lutea (Portères) Hepper A(i) True True False False False Common
Gladiolus chevalieranus Marais A(i) True False False False False Common
Genlisea barthlottii S.Porembski, Eb.Fisch. & Gemmel A(i) True True False False False Common
Dorstenia astyanactis Aké Assi A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Rhytachne glabra (Gledhill) Clayton A(i) True True True False False Common
Homalium smythei Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Pavetta platycalyx Bremek. A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Copaifera salikounda Heckel A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Cryptosepalum tetraphyllum (Hook.f.) Benth. A(i) True True True False False Common
Cola reticulata A.Chev. A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. A(i) True False True False True Frequent
Entandrophragma candollei Harms A(i) True False True False True Frequent
Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. A(i) True False True False True Frequent
Milicia regia (A.Chev.) C.C.Berg A(i) True False True False True Frequent
Polystachya orophila Stévart & E.Bidault A(i) True True True False False Common
Glenniea adami (Fouilloy) Leenh. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Rinorea djalonensis A.Chev. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Pavetta leonensis Keay A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Tarenna brachysiphon (Hiern) Keay A(i) True False False False False Unknown
Cola angustifolia K.Schum. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Osbeckia porteresii Jacq.-Fél. ( Jacq.-Fél.) A(i) True True True True False Unknown
Heterotis sylvestris  (Jacq.-Fél.) Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Droogmansia chevalieri (Harms) Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Dracaena calocephala Bos A(i) True False False False False Unknown
Sporobolus pauciflorus A.Chev. A(i) True True True True False Unknown
Impatiens nzoana A.Chev. A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Vernonia nimbaensis C.D.Adams A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Cassipourea adamii Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Nemum bulbostyloides (Hooper) J.Raynal A(i) False False False False False Abundant
Neolemonniera clitandrifolia A.Chev. A(i) False False True False False Unknown

Tarenna hutchinsonii Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Marsdenia exellii C.E.Norman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Begonia quadrialata Warb. subsp. nimbaensis Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Justicia jamisonii Jongkind & Vollesen

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Bulbostylis guineensis Cherm. ex M.Bodard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Hypolytrum cacuminum Nelmes

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Okoubaka aubrevillei Pellegr. & Normand

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Allophylus samoritourei Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Brachystephanus jaundensis Lindau subsp. nimbae (Heine) I.Darbysh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Nemum bulbostyloides (Hooper) J.Raynal

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Albizia ferruginea (Guill. & Perr.) Benth.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Kotschya lutea (Portères) Hepper

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Gladiolus chevalieranus Marais

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Genlisea barthlottii S.Porembski, Eb.Fisch. & Gemmel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Dorstenia astyanactis Aké Assi

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Rhytachne glabra (Gledhill) Clayton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Homalium smythei Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Pavetta platycalyx Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Copaifera salikounda Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Cryptosepalum tetraphyllum (Hook.f.) Benth.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Cola reticulata A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Entandrophragma candollei Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Khaya grandifoliola C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Milicia regia (A.Chev.) C.C.Berg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Polystachya orophila Stévart & E.Bidault

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Glenniea adami (Fouilloy) Leenh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Rinorea djalonensis A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Pavetta leonensis Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Tarenna brachysiphon (Hiern) Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Cola angustifolia K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Osbeckia porteresii Jacq.-Fél. ( Jacq.-Fél.)

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Heterotis sylvestris  (Jacq.-Fél.) Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Droogmansia chevalieri (Harms) Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Dracaena calocephala Bos

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Sporobolus pauciflorus A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Impatiens nzoana A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Vernonia nimbaensis C.D.Adams

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Cassipourea adamii Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Nemum bulbostyloides (Hooper) J.Raynal

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Abundant

Neolemonniera clitandrifolia A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
High Altitude Lateritic Bowal Grasslands C(iii) False True True
Guinean Highland Submontane Forest C(iii) False True True
West African Lowland Evergreen Forest C(iii) False True True

High Altitude Lateritic Bowal Grasslands

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:

Guinean Highland Submontane Forest

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:

West African Lowland Evergreen Forest

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Minor
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation No value Major
Extractive industry No value Minor
Tourism / Recreation No value Minor

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Extractive industry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Tourism / Recreation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Nimba UNESCO World Heritage Site protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA No value
Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve National Nature Reserve IPA encompasses protected/conservation area No value

Mount Nimba

Protected area type:
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Protected area type:
National Nature Reserve
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
No value

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Monts Nimba Important Bird Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA No value

Monts Nimba

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Protected Area management plan in place The Strict Nature Reserve’s and Biosphere Reserve’s Management Plans are out of date. Apart from the studies, invasive species-control programme and fire-control programme of the mining-concession holder, the last of which is implemented jointly with CEGENS, current management activities do not address plant conservation. 1991 No value

Protected Area management plan in place

The Strict Nature Reserve’s and Biosphere Reserve’s Management Plans are out of date. Apart from the studies, invasive species-control programme and fire-control programme of the mining-concession holder, the last of which is implemented jointly with CEGENS, current management activities do not address plant conservation.
Year started:
1991
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Couch, C., Magassouba, S., Rokni, S. & Cheek, M., 2018

Threatened plants species of Guinea-Conakry: A preliminary checklist

Peerj Preprints

IUCN, 2019

IUCN Red List

Available online

UNESCO, 2007

Man and Biosphere Reserves Directory: Monts Nimba

Available online

BirdLife International, 2001

Important Bird Areas factsheet: Monts Nimba (part of Mount Nimba transboundary AZE)

Available online

UNESCO, 1982

World Heritage List: Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Available online

Recommended citation

Charlotte Couch, Martin Cheek, Jamison Suter, Carel Jongkind (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Nimba Mountains (Guinea). https://tipas.kew.org/site/nimba-mountains/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)