Mueda Plateau and Escarpments

Planalto e Escarpas de Mueda

MOZTIPA025
Mueda Plateau and Escarpments

Country: Mozambique

Administrative region: Cabo Delgado (Province)

Central co-ordinates: 11.4682 S, 39.56070 E

Area: 2200km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The Mueda Plateau and Escarpments qualify as an Important Plant Area under criterion A(i) as they hold populations of 19 globally threatened plant taxa, of which eight are assessed as Vulnerable, nine as Endangered and two as Critically Endangered. This IPA includes the entire known global population of Uvaria rovumae, and is the only Mozambican IPA known to contain populations of Celosia patentiloba, Lannea welwitschii var. ciliolata, Momordica henriquesii, Monodora carolinae and Paropsia grewioides var. orientalis. Mueda does not yet qualify under criterion B as only ten (ca. 2%) of the B2 qualifying species have so far been recorded from this locality, although this figure is likely to increase with further exploration of the remnant patches of natural vegetation on the plateau and escarpment. Given the extent of transformation and fragmentation of the natural habitats on the plateau, and the very limited extent of Rovuma forest and thicket still present, this site does not qualify as an IPA under criterion C.

Site description

The Mueda Plateau (sometimes referred to as the Makonde or Maconde Plateau) is located in northern Cabo Delgado Province close to the border with Tanzania. The IPA is located mainly within Mueda and Muidumbe Districts, but also extends into Nangade District in the northeast section. This low plateau rises rather gradually on its eastern side and reaches just over 1,000 m elevation at its highest point around Chomba in the west. The northern, southern and particularly the western scarps of the plateau are typically steep and with complex gulley systems. It is bounded to the north by the broad valley of the Rovuma River and to the south by the Messalo River valley. The IPA covers an area of 2,251 km2, extending for ca. 100 km from north to south, and is slightly under 30 km wide at its widest point.
The Mueda Plateau has been settled for at least two centuries and was the cradle of Mozambique’s independence movement in the 1960s. A large number of settlements are well established across the site, including the towns of Mueda in the southwest and Mocimboa do Rovuma in the northwest of the escarpment. The plateau is traversed by route 509 which connects Mueda to the coastal town of Mocimboa da Praia, before continuing inland to Montepuez.
This site was previously covered by extensive thickets and dry forests of high botanical importance. The natural vegetation is, however, under severe threat due to the high population and associated habitat transformation, with the key habitats now largely restricted to steeper slopes and inaccessible areas along the plateau escarpments. For this reason, the IPA primarily covers the escarpments, as well as the somewhat less densely populated northern section of the plateau; the main towns and the heavily populated central and southern parts of the plateau are excluded. For the Mueda Plateau to retain its biodiversity value, there is an urgent need for protection and management of the remaining natural habitats, and potentially for a programme of habitat restoration in the less densely populated areas.

Botanical significance

The botanical significance of the Mueda Plateau is associated primarily with the extensive thickets, woodlands and dry forests that are believed to have originally covered much of this site. These habitats contain a number of rare and range-restricted species of the proposed Rovuma Centre of Plant Endemism (Burrows & Timberlake 2011; Darbyshire et al. 2019). It is a critical site for several species, notably Hugonia grandiflora (EN), for which the majority of known localities are on the Mueda Plateau (Wabuyele et al. 2020), as well as Monodora carolinae (EN) and Paropsia grewioides var. orientalis (EN), for which this IPA is the only known Mozambican site. Tarenna sp. 53 if Degreef (2006), which is currently under description (I. Darbyshire et al., unpubl. data) is also present in the remnant forest patches. Although the herbaceous flora is not well documented, the discovery in 2009 of a population of Celosia patentiloba (CR) on the plateau (A. Banze #106) is of particular note as this is only the second confirmed record of this Critically Endangered species, the type being from Newala on the adjacent Makonde Plateau in Tanzania where it is highly threatened by extensive losses of suitable habitat (Howard et al. 2020). Potential records of this species from the Rondo Plateau in Tanzania in fact refer to a closely related but distinct and apparently undescribed species (I. Darbyshire, pers. obs.).
The southeastern escarpment near Muidumbe holds an important outlier population of the rock-dwelling Aloe ribauensis (EN), otherwise known only from the Ribáuè Mountains in Nampula Province (McCoy et al. 2014; Osborne et al. 2019).
Also included within the IPA boundary is an area of lowland woodland-dry forest mosaic along the northeastern side of the plateau and south of the town of Nangade, which supports the only known population globally of the Critically Endangered species Uvaria rovumae (Deroin & Lötter 2013). Although heavily disturbed, there are still reasonably extensive patches of this lowland mosaic away from the Nangade to Namau road. Additional new species may still be discovered here; for example, Lagynias (=Vangueria) sp. A of Burrows et al. (2018) is known only from a single collection from close to the locality for U. rovumae.
In total, 19 globally threatened plant taxa are known to occur on the Mueda Plateau and adjacent footslopes, although in some cases their continued existence at this site requires confirmation given the scale of habitat transformation. The loss of most of the natural woody vegetation is likely to have had a profound impact on many of these species. This site is also of interest as the only known locality in Mozambique for a number of taxa including Ancylobothrys tayloris (LC), Cassia angolensis, C. burttii, Vernonia (Jeffreycia) zanzibarensis (LC) and Whitfieldia orientalis; one of only two known Mozambican localities for the rare Streblus usambarensis; and a noted locality for the scarce and over-exploited timber tree Pterocarpus megalocarpus (J. Burrows, pers. comm. 2021). It is also worth noting that there are some highly localised species have been recorded from the lowlands to the west of the Plateau and towards Negomano, including the only Mozambican site for two species, Blepharispermum brachycarpum (EN) and Crotalaria misella (DD), as well as populations of Paranecepsia alchorneifolia (VU) and Stylochaeton euryphyllus (VU). It is possible that these species will be recorded in the lower elevation areas of the Mueda Plateau IPA in the future.

Habitat and geology

Mueda is one of a series of low plateaux in the Mozambique-Tanzania coastal border region, including the Makonde Plateau which is separated from Mueda only by the Rovuma River valley. Further north, inland from Lindi in Tanzania, lies the Rondo Plateau which is renowned for its botanical importance (Clarke 2001). The dominant underlying geology of the Mueda Plateau is thought to comprise iron-rich sandstone and conglomerates of the Mikindani Formation of mid-Neogene origin (c. 10-15 mya), giving rise to red soils that are well-drained, sand-rich and poorly structured. Along the escarpments there are outcrops of the Cretaceous Maconde Formation conglomerates and sandstones (I.N.G. 1987, reproduced in Timberlake et al. 2010; Hancox et al. 2002). The older formations are overlain by Quaternary or Neogene sedimentary deposits which form a gentle isocline running northwest from the coast, and reaching its highest points on the Mueda Plateau in Mozambique and the Makonde Plateau in Tanzania, with the Rovuma River cutting a sharp channel of c. 10 km wide into the deposits (Clarke 2011). Elsewhere within the coastal Cabo Delgado region, outcrops of the Mikindani sandstones are associated with dry forest patches of high botanical importance (Timberlake et al. 2010).
Given the long history of human impact on this area (see Conservation issues), the original vegetation of the plateau is difficult to ascertain with certainty. The vegetation map of Wild & Barbosa (1968) indicates that much of the Mueda Plateau, particularly on the eastern side, was dominated by a formation of Dry Deciduous Lowland Forest on sandstone and conglomerates (their type 6), a vegetation type that was largely confined in this region to Mueda. Dominant species in this community included Adansonia digitata, Balanites maughamii, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Cordyla africana, Dialium holtzii, Milicia excelsa, Millettia stuhlmannii and Sterculia spp. (Wild & Barbosa 1968). Much of the woody vegetation of the plateau has been removed and replaced with farmland and areas of fallow, and this forest vegetation type is now reduced to small remnants (Lotter et al., in prep.). Even more severely impacted appears to be moist semi-deciduous forest on the highest parts of the plateau, which is today evident only by the presence of scattered moist forest indicator species, such as Casearia gladiiformis, Dracaena mannii, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Harungana madagascariensis and Rinorea ferruginea (Lotter et al., in prep.). A patch of swamp forest is recorded on the western edge of the plateau, this being the source of water for the town of Mueda), and is dominated by Albizia adianthifolia, Synsepalum brevipes, Syzygium owariensis and Voacanga thouarsii together with the climbing swamp fern, Stenochlaena tenuifolia (Lotter et al., in prep.).The remaining woodland and thicket is mostly secondary in nature, with denser and more intact areas largely confined to steeper slopes and gulleys along the escarpments. The areas of the escarpment near Mocímboa da Rovuma and towards Ngapa appear more intact than elsewhere. Miombo woodland , is widespread along the escarpments, typically dominated by Julbernardia globiflora with Brachystegia spp., Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Pericopsis angolensis, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia quinqueloba and Terminalia stenostachya (Lotter et al., in prep.).
The climate of the Mueda Plateau is highly seasonal, with a prolonged dry season from May to November and a short hot and wet season mainly between December and April. Annual rainfall at Mueda town is approximately 1,100 mm per year (Timberlake et al. 2010), which is comparable to that of the Rondo Plateau in Tanzania.

Conservation issues

The Mueda Plateau and the surrounding lowlands are not currently under any formal protection and this is one of the most severely threatened and degraded IPAs in Mozambique. The plateau has a long history of settlement, starting at least as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century. This was driven in part by the establishment of slaving routes along the Rovuma, which drove local populations onto the adjacent plateaus which were much less accessible and densely wooded (Israel 2005). Indeed, the plateau settlers were named “Makonde” after the densely vegetated uplands. The Makonde (colloquially named the Mavia, or “the nervous”) were mentioned in Livingstone’s journals and were visited in 1882 by Henry O’Neill, British Consul to Mozambique (Timberlake et al. 2010). Timberlake et al. (2010) note that much of the Dry Deciduous Forest of the eastern plateau is likely to have been destroyed through agricultural expansion and logging in the pre-independence period. During the 1960s, the Mueda Plateau became the focus point of the independence struggles, with FRELIMO establishing their main base there, supported by the Makonde and their strong ties to independent and socialist Tanzania immediately to the north (Israel 2005). The area saw much military action, with associated environmental impacts. Following independence, larger and more formal settlements were established on the plateau and it is from this time that clearance of the remaining dense woodlands and thickets is believed to have accelerated.
The reasonably fertile soils and reliable rainfall mean that the plateau is attractive for agriculture, with a variety of grains grown both for subsistence and some export, including millet, vegetables and particularly maize, as well as cashew cultivation. As a result, the vast majority of the original wooded vegetation has been cleared in all but the steeper and less inaccessible areas. Dense vegetation cover (woodland, thicket and forest) is estimated to have declined from an estimated 2,332 km2 historically to only 89 km2 at present, a decline of over 96% (Timberlake et al. 2011), with losses particularly severe on the eastern slopes of the plateau. The steeper escarpments and some areas of the northern portion of the plateau have escaped the worst of the clearance, and a portion of the northwest plateau, escarpment and footslopes (within the current IPA boundary) was proposed as a potential conservation area by Timberlake et al. (2010). However, even the northern parts of the plateau have experienced recent heavy logging following increased settlement there (J. Burrows, pers. comm. 2021).
Studies on the adjacent Makonde Plateau of Tanzania have revealed that the sandy soils have a weakly developed structure and are highly prone to gully erosion in areas where the vegetation has been denuded (Achten et al. 2008; Kabanza et al. 2013). This situation is likely to be equally applicable to the Mueda Plateau which has similar soils (Achten et al. 2008). A further threat is from increased frequency of uncontrolled wildfires due to deliberate burning; such fires are noted to be impacting the populations of Aloe ribauensis in the vicinity of Muidumbe on the southern edge of the plateau (Osborne et al. 2019).
The most urgent conservation priorities on the Mueda Plateau are to raise community awareness and support for sustainable management of the existing remnants of dry forest and thicket vegetation and, potentially, to develop a restoration scheme for these habitats in areas that are not so densely inhabited. Some optimism for such an approach can be taken from the Rondo Nature Forest Reserve in southeast Tanzania, where considerable regeneration of forest has occurred since the cessation of logging in the 1980s. Without such conservation schemes, the Mueda Plateau may soon lose its remaining biodiversity value. Ex situ conservation measures are also required for some of the most range-restricted species that occur on the plateau and adjacent lowlands, such as Celosia patentiloba, Hugonia grandiflora and Uvaria rovumae, given the high extinction risk they face in the wild.

Ecosystem services

The ecosystem services provided by this IPA are yet to be fully documented. The natural vegetation appears to provide important provisioning services to local communities, including harvesting of wood for charcoal production and construction, although these practices have clearly been unsustainable in the past. The more intact areas of the IPA are also likely to provide important regulatory services, particularly in terms of preventing erosion of the rather vulnerable, poorly structured soils. The area also has some cultural importance given the long history of the Makonde settlement and the role that this site and its people played in the independence movement.

Site assessor(s)

Iain Darbyshire, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Monodora carolinae Couvreur A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Aloe ribauensis T.A.McCoy, Rulkens & O.J.Baptista A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Salacia orientalis N.Robson A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Baphia macrocalyx Harms A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Hugonia grandiflora N.Robson A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Cuviera schliebenii Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Oxyanthus biflorus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Tricalysia semidecidua Bridson A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Erianthemum lindense (Sprague) Danser A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Paropsia grewioides Mast. var. orientalis Sleumer A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Sterculia schliebenii Mildbr. A(i) False False True False False Unknown
Cuviera tomentosa Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Uvaria rovumae Deroin & Lötter A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Celosia patentiloba C.C.Towns. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Acacia latistipulata Harms A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Vismianthus punctatus Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Momordica henriquesii Cogn. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Rothmannia macrosiphon (K.Schum. ex Engl.) Bridson A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Lannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl. var. ciliolata Engl. A(i) False True True False False Unknown

Monodora carolinae Couvreur

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Aloe ribauensis T.A.McCoy, Rulkens & O.J.Baptista

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Salacia orientalis N.Robson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Baphia macrocalyx Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Hugonia grandiflora N.Robson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Cuviera schliebenii Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Oxyanthus biflorus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Tricalysia semidecidua Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Erianthemum lindense (Sprague) Danser

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Paropsia grewioides Mast. var. orientalis Sleumer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Sterculia schliebenii Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Cuviera tomentosa Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Uvaria rovumae Deroin & Lötter

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Celosia patentiloba C.C.Towns.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Acacia latistipulata Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Vismianthus punctatus Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Momordica henriquesii Cogn.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Rothmannia macrosiphon (K.Schum. ex Engl.) Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Lannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl. var. ciliolata Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
Rovuma Coastal Dry Forest C(iii) False False False

Rovuma Coastal Dry Forest

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
False
Areal coverage at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest No value Minor
Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Shrubland No value Major
Savanna - Moist Savanna No value Major
Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land No value Major
Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Shrubland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Savanna - Moist Savanna

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Agriculture (arable) No value Major
Residential / urban development No value Minor
Harvesting of wild resources No value Major

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Residential / urban development

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming High Ongoing - trend unknown
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity High Ongoing - trend unknown
Pollution - Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Unknown Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Pollution - Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation

Severity:
Unknown
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

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Trees and Shrubs Mozambique

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Coastal Dry Forests in Cabo Delgado Province, Northern Mozambique: Botany and Conservation.

Burrows, J.E. & Timberlake, J.R., 2011

Mozambique’s centres of endemism, with special reference to the Rovuma Centre of Endemism of NE Mozambique and SE Tanzania.

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Timberlake, J., Goyder, D., Crawford, F., Burrows, J.E., Clarke, G.P., Luke, Q., Matimele, H., Müller, T., Pascal, O., de Sousa, C. & Alves T., 2011

Coastal dry forests in northern Mozambique.

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Clarke, G.P., 2011

Observations on the vegetation and ecology of Palma and Nangade Districts, Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique.

Available online

Lötter, M., Burrows, J., McCleland, W., Stalmans, M., Schmidt, E., Soares, M., Grantham, H., Jones, K., Duarte, E., Matimele, H. & Costa, H. M., In Prep

Historical Vegetation Map and Red List of Ecosystems Assessment for Mozambique – Version 1.0 – Final report

Degreef, J., 2006

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Opera Botanica Belgica, Vol 14, page(s) 1-150

McCoy, T.A., Rulkens, A.J.H. and Baptista, O.J., 2014

An extraordinary new species of Aloe from the Republic of Mozambique.

Cactus and Succulent Journal, Vol 86, page(s) 48-53

Achten, W.M.J., Dondeyne, S., Mugogo, S., Kafiriti, E., Poesen, J., Deckers, J. & Muys, B., 2008

Gully erosion in South Eastern Tanzania: spatial distribution and topographic thresholds.

Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Vol 52, page(s) 225-235

Clarke, G.P., 2001

The Lindi local centre of endemism in SE Tanzania.

Systematics and Geography of Plants, Vol 71, page(s) 1063-1072

Israel, P., 2006

Kummwangalela Guebuza. The Mozambican General Elections of 2004 in Muidumbe and the Roots of the Loyalty of Makonde People to Frelimo.

Lusotopie, Vol 13, page(s) 103-125

Kabanza, A.K., Dondeyne, S., Kimaro, D.N., Kafiriti, E., Poesen, J. & Deckers, J.A., 2013

Effectiveness of soil conservation measures in two contrasting landscape units of South Eastern Tanzania.

Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Vol 57, page(s) 269-288

Osborne, J., Darbyshire, I., Matimele, H.A., Alves, M.T., Chelene, I., Datizua, C., De Sousa, C., Langa, C., Massingue, A.O., Mucaleque, P.A., Odorico, D., Rokni, S., Rulkens, A.J.H., Timberlake, J. & Viegas, A., 2019

Aloe ribauensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T110780332A110780364.

Deroin, T. & Lotter, M., 2013

A new Uvaria L. species (Annonaceae) from northern Mozambique.

Adansonia, Vol 35, page(s) 227-234

Hancox, J.P., Brandt, D. & Edwards, H., 2002

Sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Early Cretaceous Maconde Formation (Rovuma basin), northern Mozambique.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol 34, page(s) 291-297

Recommended citation

Iain Darbyshire (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mueda Plateau and Escarpments (Mozambique). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mueda-plateau-and-escarpments/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)