Mt Gangan Sandstone Mountain Chain

GUITIPA003
Mt Gangan Sandstone Mountain Chain

Country: Guinea

Administrative region: Kindia (Prefecture)

Central co-ordinates: 10.16528 N, 12.95083 W

Area: 633km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, A(iii)Site contains one or more highly restricted endemic species that are potentially threatened, B(i)Site contains a high number of species within defined habitat or vegetation types, C(iii)Site contains nationally threatened or restricted habitat or vegetation types, AND/OR habitats that have severely declined in extent nationally

IPA assessment rationale

The Mt Gangan sandstone table mountains form a unique environment within the local area of Kindia Prefecture, the sandstone cliffs, low altitude sandstone bowal and submontane forest are all recognised as threatened vegetation types of Guinea. Species globally endemic to Mt Gangan are Kindia gangan (newly described in 2018), Clerodendrum sylviae, Phyllanthus felicis, plus several near endemics to Mt Gangan e.g. Pitcairnia feliciana, the only bromeliad in Africa. There are numerous other rare and threatened species found on the sandstone bowal, including Plectranthus linearifolius and Raphionacme caerulea. The area also includes some disturbed lowland forest on Mt Gangan itself.

Site description

The Mt Gangan Sandstone Mountains are located north east of the town of Kindia. The core area is 33.4 km wide and 26.5 km at its longest point. It is made up of a series of sandstone step hills intersected with valleys and surrounded by sandstone bowal. The proposed TIPA surrounds the top half of the reservoir at Samaya. Sandstone steps on the bowal have Plectranthus sp. nov., and Cyanotis ganganensis both nearly endemic to Mt Gangan. The sandstone bowal is often used for small-scale cultivation of vegetables and herbs. The crevices and cracks in the cliffs are home to numerous endemic species and new species have been recently discovered here.

Mt Gangan itself has patches of remnant submontane forest near the summit, however, much was lost due to a now disused banana plantation, and part of the summit area is cleared and littered by tourists from Kindia as a picnic spot. Part of this area was previously designated as a Classified Forest, but there has been little practical protection in recent years. The low altitude sandstone bowal, submontane forest and sandstone cliffs are recognised as threatened vegetation types in Guinea.

Botanical significance

The topographic features of the Mt Gangan Sandstone Mountains give rise to some unique habitats. Numerous species endemic to Guinea are found on the cliffs, for example Pitcairnia feliciana EN, the only native African member of the Bromeliaceae (pineapple family), and Fleurydora felicis VU (Ochnaceae) and Clerodendrum sylvae EN (Lamiaceae). In 2018, a new genus to science was described from these cliff areas, Kindia gangan (Rubiaceae), also monospecific and endemic to Mt Gangan. In addition, Anisotes guineensis (Acanthaceae), Cyanotis ganganensis (Commelinaceae), Apodiscus chevalieri (Phyllanthaceae) are also present; all these species are threatened and have a very restricted distribution.
The sandstone bowal dominant grass is Anadelphia chevalieri, globally endemic to the Kindia area. Globally threatened species include Utricularia pobeguinii (Lentibulariaceae), which are also unique to the environs of Kindia, Plectranthus linearifolius (Lamiaceae) and an unusual variant of Raphionacme caerulea (Apocynaceae). Baphia heudelotiana VU (Leguminosae-Papillionoideae) and Fegimanra afzelii NT (Anacardiaceae), small trees are found in the deeper cracks of the bowal.

Habitat and geology

Sandstone table mountains, cliffs and valleys with crevices and cracks. The valley vegetation can be quite high and dense. Sandstone bowal with seepage areas, temporary waterways. Mt Gangan itself has patches of remnant submontane forest near the summit, however, much was lost due to a previous banana plantation (now disused). In the local language of Susu, gangan means ‘Sisal’. The mountain takes its name from this plant species. Ordovician sandstone layered with younger Silurian and Devonian argillite and siltstone; differential weathering gives rise to steps in the mountains (Source: Carte des Minéraux de la Guinee, Ministry of Mines, Government of Guinea, 2006).

Conservation issues

There are several threats to this area. Fires from the cattle herders are an issue in the lowland bowal area and potentially they can move up valleys and onto the cliffs. Cattle herds of large numbers have been observed in this area and this can cause damage through trampling and overgrazing. Cultivation of market garden produce is a threat to the bowal. This is currently quite localised and small scale, but threatens some areas where Raphionacme caerulea has been observed. There is also a threat from lowland forest being cleared for charcoal production. Fleurydora felicis is used by the local people as a medicine, but the level of collection and utilisation is not known.

Site assessor(s)

Charlotte Couch, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Denise Molmou, Herbier National de Guinee/ Simfer

Sekou Magassouba, Herbier National de Guinee

Saidou Doumbouya, COSIE (Ministre de l'Environnement, Eaux et Forets, Govt de Guinee)

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Pitcairnia feliciana (A.Chev.) Harms & Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Fleurydora felicis A.Chev. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Kindia gangan Cheek A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Anisotes guineensis Lindau A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Apodiscus chevalieri Hutch. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Baphia heudelotiana Baill. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Cyanotis ganganensis Schnell A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Anadelphia pumila Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True True False Unknown
Dilophotriche occidentalis Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Digitaria patagiata Henrard A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Dissotis humilis A.Chev. & Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Heterotis pygmaea (A.Chev. & Jacq.-Fél.) Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Keetia susu Cheek A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Bulbostylis guineensis Cherm. ex M.Bodard A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Utricularia pobeguinii Pellegr. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Utricularia macrocheilos (P.Taylor) P.Taylor A(i), A(iii) True True False False False Scarce
Utricularia tetraloba P.Taylor A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Clerodendrum sylvae J.-G.Adam A(i) True True True True False Occasional
Anadelphia chevalieri Reznik A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Phyllanthus felicis J.F.Brunel A(i) True True True True False Occasional
Schizachyrium penicillatum Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Schizachyrium radicosum Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Anadelphia macrochaeta (Stapf) Clayton A(i) True True False False False Scarce
Napoleonaea alata Jongkind A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Dissotis leonensis Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Anadelphia trichaeta (Reznik) Clayton A(i) True False False False False Scarce

Pitcairnia feliciana (A.Chev.) Harms & Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Fleurydora felicis A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Kindia gangan Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Anisotes guineensis Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Apodiscus chevalieri Hutch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Baphia heudelotiana Baill.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Cyanotis ganganensis Schnell

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Anadelphia pumila Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Dilophotriche occidentalis Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Digitaria patagiata Henrard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Dissotis humilis A.Chev. & Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Heterotis pygmaea (A.Chev. & Jacq.-Fél.) Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Keetia susu Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Bulbostylis guineensis Cherm. ex M.Bodard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Utricularia pobeguinii Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Utricularia macrocheilos (P.Taylor) P.Taylor

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Utricularia tetraloba P.Taylor

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Clerodendrum sylvae J.-G.Adam

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Anadelphia chevalieri Reznik

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Phyllanthus felicis J.F.Brunel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Schizachyrium penicillatum Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Schizachyrium radicosum Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Anadelphia macrochaeta (Stapf) Clayton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Napoleonaea alata Jongkind

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Dissotis leonensis Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Anadelphia trichaeta (Reznik) Clayton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
Low Altitude Sandstone Bowal Grasslands C(iii) False True True 451
Sandstone cliffs and walls C(iii) False True True 58

Low Altitude Sandstone Bowal Grasslands

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:
451

Sandstone cliffs and walls

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:
58

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland No value Major
Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks] No value Minor

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Agriculture (pastoral) No value Major
Agriculture (arable) No value Minor
Tourism / Recreation No value Minor

Agriculture (pastoral)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Tourism / Recreation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Medium Ongoing - stable
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Medium Ongoing - stable
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Low Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming High Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mt Gangan Classified Forest IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 90

Mt Gangan

Protected area type:
Classified Forest
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
90

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Lisowski, S., 2009

Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée.

Couch, C., Magassouba, S., Rokni, S. & Cheek, M., 2018

Threatened plants species of Guinea-Conakry: A preliminary checklist

Peerj Preprints

IUCN, 2019

IUCN Red List

Available online

Cheek et al., 2018

Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae), a new cliff-dwelling genus with chemically profiled colleter exudate from Mt Gangan, Republic of Guinea.

PeerJ

Molmou, D. & Konomou, G., 2017

Rapport de terrain du projet Darwin initiative dans la zone de Kindia et Coyah.

Available online

Molmou, D. & Seny Dore, T., 2017

Rapport Darwin de la mission a Kebe Friguia et environs, Kindia.

Available online

Couch, C., 2017

Darwin TIPAs Report Field expedition to Friguiagbé and Kindia area 26-29 October 2017

Available online

Recommended citation

Charlotte Couch, Martin Cheek, Denise Molmou, Sekou Magassouba, Saidou Doumbouya (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mt Gangan Sandstone Mountain Chain (Guinea). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mt-gangan-sandstone-mountain-chain/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)