Mount Nlonako

CMNTIPA018
Mount Nlonako

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Littoral (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.91000 N, 9.95000 E

Area: 661km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Mount Nlonako qualifies as a potential IPA under criterion A(i) due to the presence of a large number of globally threatened species. The site would likely also qualify as a reservoir of useful species under criterion B(iii) or as an important site for nationally threatened submontane forest and moist lowland forest.

Site description

Mount Nlonako is part of the Cameroon line of volcanic uplands which stretch inland from the bay of Biafra in a northeast direction. These mountains constitute some of the few areas in tropical Africa north of the equator that exceed 1000 m in altitude, apart from the more extensive uplands of the rift valley and Ethiopian Highlands. In White's (1983) phytogeographical scheme they are part of the Afromontane archipelago-like centre of endemism. Mount Nlonako itself is on the eastern side of this chain, with the summit approximately 15km southeast of the eastern summit of the better known Mount Mwanenguba. Between these two mountains runs the major Douala-Baffoussam N5 road, along which are several large urban areas, including, at the foot of Mount Nlonako, the city of Nkongsamba with a population of c.100,000 at the 2005 census, estimated to have risen to 117,000 in 2020.
The area here proposed as an IPA approximately matches the Mount Nlonako IBA but includes a little more of the degraded western and southern slopes of Nlonako where important plant species may still survive amongst secondary forest. The southern border follows the Nkebe river and the site extends east of the peak as far as the Nkam river to incorporate a large area of little-populated, undulating lowland forest. Therefore, the site also mostly overlaps FMU 07-004 except that the FMU does not include the upper slopes of Mount Nlonako itself. Beyond the eastern boundary lies the Yabassi Key bird area incorporating Nkondjock and Yingui council forests (former Makombe forest) and then the Ebo Forest.

Botanical significance

The site is significant both for its montane and submontane forest and for the large tracts of relatively intact, lowland rainforest with semi-deciduous elements (Birdlife International, 2020). There has been little botanical surveying, especially on the eastern side. The different rock and soil types and reportedly less humid conditions (see below) may produce a somewhat unique flora compared to other nearby mountains. A large number of globally threatened species are found at the site as well as many timber species and medicinal plants utilised by the local population. Four threatened species of the genus Begonia are recorded, suggesting the area may have been part of a Pleistocene refuge, as has been suggested for amphibians (Hermann et al., 2005). Further botanical collecting is urgently needed, especially of the montane summit vegetation and eastern forest. The rare rheophyte, Ledermanniella thalloidea (EN) is included here as collections, including the type, have been made from nearby towns although it is unknown if from Mt Nlonako. Crudia letouzeyi (VU) has been collected in the vicinity of Balondo close to the proposed southern border.

Habitat and geology

Although Gartlan (1989) describes Mount Nlonako as part of the elevated gneiss and granite precambrian basement complex, more recent research (Kamgang et al., 2020; Pouclet et al., 2014) suggests it is an an igneous (90% syenite) intrusion of probable Eocene age, while the forest to the east lies on Neoproterozoic basement complex rocks. Minor amounts of extrusive rock (rhyolites and basalts) also occur. As an intrusive formation it differs from its more recent, extrusive neighbour Mount Manengouba and from Mt Kupe which may derive from a horst but is capped by basalt (Pouclet et al., 2014). The slopes are steep, especially on the western face, but also much eroded; a large crater-like culvert is found near the summit, opening to the eastern slopes which descend more gradually. Pedologically, course gravels, very acid sands and laterites are dominant (Gartlan, 1989). Soils in the lowland forest in the eastern part are unreported but are likely to be more typical laterites over basement complex rocks.
Rainfall at Nkongsamba (882 m.a.s.l) averaged 2,762 mm per year over a 34 year period (Amiet 1975, cited by Hermann et al., 2005). The tropical monsoon climate has a single summer wet season, peaking between July and September with up to 482 mm of rain per month. The winter dry season between December and February has less than 50 mm per month. At the summit of Mount Nlonako itself, annual rainfall was 3,000 mm (Valet et al., 1985). Mean annual temperature was 20 °C at the summit and 26 °C at Nkongsamba (Gartlan 1989; Valet et al., 1985 cited by Sainge et al., 2018).
Although lying less than 150 km from the Bight of Biafra coast and therefore within White's (1983) Guineo-Congolian lowland rainforest, Mount Nlonako's altitude puts it in the Afromontane zone. Letouzey's (1965) map of Cameroon locates Mount Nlonako in a submontane-montane vegetation zone, with the eastern hinterland in the Biafran forest zone. The eastern forest is drier and less humid, with less epiphytic vegetation than that at equivalent altitude in the Bakossi-Kupe-Manengouba area (Hermann et al., 2005; Birdlife International, 2020).

Conservation issues

There has been severe degradation to the Northern slopes (facing Nkongsamba) up to at least 1000 m due to agriculture, logging and over-exploitation of medicinal plants. However, Nembot & Tchanou (1998) suggested that the steep slopes, relatively infertile soils and lack of access had generally limited damage to much of the mountain. Hermann et al. (2005) reported forest destruction on the western and northern slopes up to about 1,100m, while in the east and south the forest was much less impacted. However, some coffee cultivation also occurs on the southern slopes, and tracks were present on the eastern slopes too, with much logging in places (Hermann et al., 2005). Small villages such as Eyimbe have cultivated land on the eastern flanks and expansion of coffee farms has almost cut off the montane vegetation from the forest below (Birdlife International, 2020). The high cuvette is vegetated largely by bracken and grass. Global forest watch estimate 0.4% tree cover loss since 2000, equivalent to 6.79kt of CO2 emission per year (Global Forest Watch, 2020).
Efforts to gain protected status for the site have been frustrated and the current status of Mount Nlonako is uncertain. The whole area was marked on the 2018 Cameroon Forest Estate map (MINFOF & WRI, 2018) as a (non-protected) forest reserve but on the 2020 map Mount Nlonako itself has been removed from the unit which is now designated as a Forest Management Unit 07-004 contracted to SCIEB with a management plan in process (MINFOF & WRI, 2020; Open Timber Portal, 2021). It was proposed in 1994 as a protected forest reserve, and WWF (2020) refer to Mount Nlonako as a protected faunal reserve but this does not appeart to have been implemented. The site has a WDPA ID number (308631) but is not included in the world database of protected sites (Protected Planet, 2022). The Cameroon NGO ERUDEF continues to push for gazettement (Ndimuh & Niba, 2018; Greenvision news, 2018), supported by research suggesting it has the richest amphibian fauna in Africa with 93 species (Hermann et al., 2005). It is one of the best sites for the giant Goliath frog (Conraua goliath, EN) as well as other globally threatened species such as Werneria mertensiana (CR) and Petropedetes perreti (EN). It is also rich in reptiles (89 species), and birds (267 species) (Ndiumuh & Niba, 2018). To the east of the site Makombe forest, part of the Yabassi Key Bird Area is apparently being developed as a large palm oil plantation concession granted to a Cameroonian company, Greenfil, part of Nana Bouba's business empire (Orozco & Salber, 2019). There appears to be much secrecy about the project and the future of this area and other huge tracts of largely intact forest in Littoral region, including Ebo forest and FMU 00-004, to the northeast remain unclear and insecure (Morgan et al., 2011). Bakaka Forest Reserve adjoins Nlonako to the south and is another important site which should be managed to maintain habitat connectivity with Mont Nlonako.

Ecosystem services

Landslides are a serious threat in much of Cameroon and the very steep, deforested western and northern slopes directly above the growing city of Nkongsamba represent a severe threat to life (Zogning et al., 2007). Images posted by a google "local guide" appear to show scars on the mountain from a major landslide which apparently took place on 16-06-2009: (Fons, 2019, https://goo.gl/maps/wkqonkS6tdSwBWnp7). The remaining forest on the mountain provides a crucial ecosystem service by limiting this danger and preventing soil erosion and silting of rivers. Although a relatively small catchment, the mountain is the source of the rivers Mungo, Wouri and Dibombari (Greenvision News, 2018). Protecting the remaining forest and reforesting the lower slopes should therefore be considered priorities.
The forest reportedly is considerably exploited for many forest products, including medicinal plants (Greenvision News, 2018). Many timber species are also known, several of which are considered globally threatened.
With good road access to Doaula and northern cities, as well as immediate proximity to Nkongsamba, the site has great tourist potential owing to the dramatic topology and large area of intact rainforest. Charismatic species such as the world's largest frog are found here but bushmeat hunting is a major threat to this and other species (Ndimuh & Niba, 2018).
The site provides habitat for a remarkable diversity of animal species. Herrmann et al. (2005a, 2005b) found it to be the most species-rich single locality in Africa for both amphibians and reptiles (especially snakes, for which it was suggested to be possibly the most species-rich site in the world). The continued presence of forest elephants, drill, gorillas, chimpanzees, other large mammals and many birds species was also reported by these and other authors (Morgan et al., 2011; Birdlife,2020). The protection of the eastern Nlonako forest and its connection with Ebo forest and the other large tracts of forests constituting the Yabassi Bird Area (FMU 00-004, Yingui, Nkondjock, Makenene, Ndikinimeki and Yabassi council forests and several patches of community forest) are likely to be crucial for the longterm survival of these populations.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr. A(i) True True False False False
Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr. A(i) False False True False False
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) False False False False True
Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br. A(i) True True True False False
Angylocalyx talbotii Baker f. ex Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) False True False False False
Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin A(i) False True True False True
Ardisia koupensis Taton A(i) True True True False False
Baillonella toxisperma Pierre A(i) False False False False True
Begonia adpressa Sosef A(i) True True False False False
Begonia oxyanthera Warb. A(i) True False False False False
Begonia pseudoviola Gilg A(i) True True True False False
Begonia pelargoniiflora J.J.de Wilde & J.C.Arends A(i) True True True False False
Calochone acuminata Keay A(i) True False False False False
Cola megalophylla Brenan & Keay A(i) True True True False True
Crateranthus talbotii Baker f. A(i) True False False False False
Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague A(i) True False False False True
Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague) Sprague A(i) True False False False True
Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. A(i) True False False False True
Eugenia fernandopoana Engl. & Brehmer A(i) False True False False False
Garcinia staudtii Engl. A(i) True False False False False
Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f. A(i) True True False False False
Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True False False False False
Jollydora glandulosa G.Schellenb. A(i) True True True False False
Loesenera talbotii Baker f. A(i) True False False False False
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f. A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild. & T.Durand) Merrill A(i) False False False False True
Palisota flagelliflora Faden A(i) True True True False False
Pararistolochia ceropegioides (S.Moore) Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True False False False False
Aristolochia goldiena Hook.f A(i) False True True False False
Pterygota bequaertii De Wild. A(i) False False False False True
Rhodognaphalon brevicuspe (Sprague) Roberty A(i) False True True False True
Sarcophrynium villosum (Benth.) K.Schum. A(i) True True True False False
Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl. A(i) True True False False False
Strychnos gnetifolia Gilg ex Onochie & Hepper A(i) False True True False True
Thyrsosalacia racemosa (Loes. ex Harms) N.Hallé A(i) True True True False False
Triclisia macrophylla Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Ardisia dewitiana Taton A(i) True True True False False
Garcinia kola Heckel A(i) False False False False True
Begonia preussii Warb. A(i) True False False False False
Costus kupensis H.Maas & Maas A(i) True True True False False
Ledermanniella thalloidea (Engl.) C.Cusset A(i) True True True False False
Cola lomensis Engl. & K.Krause A(iii) True True True False False

Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Angylocalyx talbotii Baker f. ex Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Ardisia koupensis Taton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Baillonella toxisperma Pierre

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Begonia adpressa Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia oxyanthera Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia pseudoviola Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia pelargoniiflora J.J.de Wilde & J.C.Arends

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calochone acuminata Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola megalophylla Brenan & Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Crateranthus talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague) Sprague

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Eugenia fernandopoana Engl. & Brehmer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Jollydora glandulosa G.Schellenb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Loesenera talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Napoleonaea egertonii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild. & T.Durand) Merrill

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Palisota flagelliflora Faden

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pararistolochia ceropegioides (S.Moore) Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aristolochia goldiena Hook.f

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pterygota bequaertii De Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Rhodognaphalon brevicuspe (Sprague) Roberty

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Sarcophrynium villosum (Benth.) K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos gnetifolia Gilg ex Onochie & Hepper

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Thyrsosalacia racemosa (Loes. ex Harms) N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Triclisia macrophylla Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ardisia dewitiana Taton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia kola Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Begonia preussii Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Costus kupensis H.Maas & Maas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ledermanniella thalloidea (Engl.) C.Cusset

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola lomensis Engl. & K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 90 Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest 10 Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
90
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
10
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Forestry 90 Unknown

Forestry

Percent coverage:
90
Importance:
Unknown

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Geological events - Avalanches/landslides Medium Past, likely to return
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming High Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants - Intentional use (species being assessed is the target) Medium Ongoing - trend unknown

Geological events - Avalanches/landslides

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Past, likely to return

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants - Intentional use (species being assessed is the target)

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
FMU 07-004 Forest Reserve (production) protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 90

FMU 07-004

Protected area type:
Forest Reserve (production)
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
90

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mont Nlonako IBA Important Bird Area protected/conservation area matches IPA 95
Mont Nlonako IBA Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area matches IPA No value

Mont Nlonako IBA

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
95

Mont Nlonako IBA

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Morgan, B.J., Adeleke, A., Bassey, T., Bergl, R., Dunn, A., Fotso, R., Gadsby, E., Gonder, K., Greengrass, E., Koulagna, D.K., Mbah, G., Nicholas, A., Oates, J.,Omeni, F., Saidu, Y., Sommer, V., Sunderland-Groves, J., Tiebou, J. & Williamson, E., 2011

Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti)

Oryx, page(s) 1-10.

Zogning, A., Ngouanet, C. & Tiafack, O., 2007

The catastrophic geomorphological processes in humid tropical Africa: A case study of the recent landslide disasters in Cameroon

Sedimentary Geology, Vol 199, page(s) 13 – 27 Available online

Sainge, N.M, Ngoh, M.L. and Benedicta, J., 2018

Floristic Diversity across the Cameroon Mountains: The Case of Bakossi National Park and Mt Nlonako. Technical Report Prepared and Submitted to the Rufford Small Grant Foundation, UK, by by Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG) Cameroon

Available online

Hermann, H-W., Boeheme, W., Hermann, P.A., Plath, M., Schmitz, A. & Solbach, M., 2005

African biodiversity hotspots: the amphibians of Mt. Nlonako, Cameroon

Salamandra, Vol 41, page(s) 61-81

BirdLife International, 2020

Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mont Nlonako

Available online

Pouclet, A., Dongmo, A. K. Jacques-Marie, Bardintzeff, P. W., Tagheu, P. C., Nkouathio, D., Bellon, H. & Ruffet, G., 2014

The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line: Volcanic history, petrological and geochemical features

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol 97, page(s) 297-321 Available online

Kamgang, J. A. N., Kouemo, J. T., Dongmo, A. K., Fozing, E. M., Kana, S. C. C., Awoum, J. E. & Nguemo, G. R. K., 2020

Emplacement and Evolution of The Nlonako Ring Complex in The Southern Domain of The Cameroon Line

European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Vol 1(4), page(s) 1-10

Fomete Nembot, T. & Tchanou, Z., 1998

La Gestion des Ecostysemes forestiers du Cameroun a l'aube de l'an 2000. Volume 2 (Monographies des sites critiques et annexes)

Available online

Greenvison News, 2018

Why Mt Nlonako Needs Urgent Gazettement

Available online

Ndimuh, S. & Niba, G., 2018

Why Mount Nlonako Needs Urgent to Gazettement

Available online

World Wildlife Fund, 2020

Western Africa: Western Cameroon extending into Ni

Available online

Orozco, A.O. & Salber, M., 2019

Palmed off: An investigation into three industrial palm oil and rubber projects in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo

Available online

Fons, P., 2019

Landslide scar on Mount Nlonako Nkongsamba

Available online

White, A.F., 1983

The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa

,

Open Timber Portal

Available online

GARTLAN, S., 1989

La conservation des écosystèmes forestiers du Cameroun. IUCN Programme for Tropical Forests

MINFOF (Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife) & WRI (World Resources Instiute), 2021

Forest Atlas of Cameroon

Available online

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mount Nlonako (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mount-nlonako/ (Accessed on 27/05/2024)