Mount Cameroon National Park

CMNTIPA039
Mount Cameroon National Park

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.21400 N, 9.17610 E

Area: 581.78km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Around 80 globally threatened species are thought to have populations at the site sufficient to qualify MCNP as an IPA under criterion A(i). The site would very likely also qualify under criterion C when fully assessed because of the uniqueness of the high altitude zones and probably other habitats too. Species richness within habitats, and of restricted range species, might also qualify the site under criterion B(i) or B(ii) when appropriate lists are completed. It might also represent a top site for social, economic and culturally useful species (criterion Biii).

Site description

At 4040 m, Mount Cameroon, known locally as Fako, is the highest mountain in West or Central Africa and also the only active volcano. It is the high point of the Cameroon Volcanic Line which extends between offshore islands Annobon, Sao Tome, Principe and Bioko and then inland roughly parallel to the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The National Park has been in existence since 2009. On the southwestern side the border extends as low as 130m, incorporating much of the transition from coastal lowland rainforest to subalpine summit grassland that makes the mountain unique in Africa. The border meets the Onge proposed reserve (Mokoko-Onge proposed IPA site) in the west and incorporates much of the former Bomboko forest reserve in the northwest. On the eastern side, the border is much higher up the mountain's flanks, up to 2500 m in the northeast and further south above Likombe. Although incorporating the important upland forests of Mount Etinde (1700 m) south of the main summit, the border runs at c.500 m on the south side above Batoke, excluding the lower slopes.

Botanical significance

Mount Cameroon is noted as the only site in Africa featuring an intact transition of natural vegetation from lowland forest at the coastal edge to subalpine summit grassland at 4000 m altitute (Cheek et al., 1996; Forboseh et al., 2011). It has been a target for European botanists since 1861 when Gustav Mann collected hundreds of specimens there for RBG, Kew's director Sir William Hooker (Cable & Cheek, 1998). The far greater altitude compared to any other site in West or Central Africa gives the site many locally or regionally rare taxa in the montane grassland zone from c. 1900 m to the summit (Cable & Cheek, 1998). Several taxa known only from historical collections by Mann are probably from this zone and could possibly have become extinct since as fire has increasingly been used on the upper slopes. Some species are historically recorded with uncertain locations and may or may not be extant within MCNP, including Peperomia dusenii, Liparis kamerunensis, Triclisia macrophylla and Ardisia oligantha.
Montane and submontane forest are found beneath this zone, and feature many species found also on other peaks of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and sometimes more distant montane sites. These include trees such as Prunus africana, Morella arborea, Ixora foliosa and Schefflera spp. Perhaps because of the unique climate or particular geology, some taxa at this altitude are also rare or locally endemic, such as Impatiens etindensis (EN).
The rare surviving evergreen forest on the lower slopes is perhaps the richest and most threatened habitat. It extends down to below 200 m in the southwest where it adjoins the Mokoko-Onge forest, and on the southern slopes the border meets the coastal plantation zone at 150-700 m. The forest around Mt Etinde is rich and relatively well preserved (BirldLife International, 2020).
As an active volcano, Mt Cameroon is a constantly evolving habitat with recent lava flows gradually maturing into fertile soils. Together with the effects of altitude and climate this makes it a particularly interesting theatre for ecological succession and evolution.

Habitat and geology

Mt Cameroon has areas with some of the highest rainfall in the world but the climate varies considerably over relatively small distances. At Cape Debundscha just outside the site boundary to the southwest the long term annual average from 1965-1993 was 9086 mm, slightly less than the >10 m cited by Courade (1974) presumably from a shorter period; the maximum annual total was nearly 17 m (Fraser et al., 1998). Elsewhere at Mokoko and Mbonge (15-20 km northwest of the boundary) and at Buea-Molyko (below the boundary on the eastern flanks at c.600 m), the yearly mean drops to 2-3 m. Precipitation follows a seasonal pattern peaking in July and August when southwesterly winds bring moisture from the Atlantic but is much reduced between November and March as the inter-tropical convergence zone moves south and the Harmattan is the prevailing wind bringing dry dusty air from the north with less than 50 mm of rain per month away from the coast (Fraser et al., 1998).
Mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures vary very little seasonally but minimums are a few degrees lower at Mokundange (17.1-18.9 °C) than at Debuschanda (21.6-23.3 °C) and maxima a little higher (27.9-31.7 °C versus 27.2-30 °C).
Mt Cameroon is an active volcano with soils of varying age and maturity from different eruptions up to the present. It is formed of alkali basalt and basanite lavas overlying Cretacious to Miocene (or more recent) sediments which in turn rest on precambrian metamorphic basement rocks (Dereulle et al, 1987; Mathieu et al., 2011). The mountain is considered to be a horst structure by Dereulle et al., 1987): ie. its height is constituted by uplift from below rather than just by accumulation of lava. Surface lavas have all been dated to 1-2 mya (Marzoli et al., 2000; Mathieu et al., 2011; Wembenyui et al. 2020) although upper Mioecene age was previously estimated by Vincent 1971 (Dereulle et al., 1987) and 10 Ma by Fitton (1983). The unusual nephelinitc larva (Etindite) of Mt Etinde has been dated to 0.65 Ma and is now considered approximately simultaneous with Mt Cameroon (Nkoumbou et al, 1995; Ntoumbe et al., 2016) having previously been estimated to represent an earlier, Miocene, volcanic formation than the main massif (Dereulle et al., 1987; Cable and Cheek 1998).
Seven eruptions were recorded in the 20th century from various Mt Cameroon vents, with major lava flows within the national park area associated with the 1909, 1922, 1954, 1982, 1999 and 2000 eruptions, and a further brief eruption in 2012. The 1922 eruption reached the sea at Bibundi-Ideanau and the 1999 eruption descended 2500 m down the southern flank to stop just before the sea to the west of Bakingili (Geiger et al., 2016). Landslides and block falls are also common (Thierry et al., 2008). Many cinder cones are also present on the southern flanks. The soils of Mt Cameroon are mostly highly fertile and targeted by farmers (Hawkins & Brunt, 1965). The southern coastal strip has been particularly targeted for agri-plantations.
Several different vegetation types have been distinguished within the national park area (Letouzey 1968, 1981; Thomas & Cheek, 1992; Maley & Brenac 1998; Cable & Cheek, 1998). As well as those discussed above and their subdivisions, a large area of Marantacea open canopy forest is notable on the western side between approximately 500-2000 m (Cable & Cheek, 1999). The combined 1982-1999 lava flow which reaches the coast near Bakingili has been studied as a potential exclusion barrier, restricting elephants to the western side where they also frequent several crater lakes (Maicher et al., 2010). Lower tree diversity and a sparser, lower canopy but more large trees were found in the elephant zone.

Conservation issues

Although better preserved than much of the surrounding forest, the National Park is not without threats, particularly fire and small-scale timber and wood extraction by the growing populations of surrounding settlrments, as well as farming within the MCNP (Awono et al., 2014). Birdlife International (2021) report that montane grassland is burnt annually in the dry season and is consequently impoverished. Clearance of forest outside the boundaries is also isolating the site and increasingly exposing the perimeter to edge effects. On the southern, southwestern and eastern boundaries, many threatened taxa are recorded from very close to the boundary or just outside and these populations are therefore highly threatened or may already be lost, particularly where agri-plantations have been established. The lack of protection even at high altitude on the eastern flanks above Buea is also of urgent concern since many important species are collected from here: this area is proposed as an additional (Eastern Mt Cameroon) IPA but would be best managed in close association with the National Park.
The National Park is unfortunately cut off from the coast, interrupting the unique altitudinal transition. A hard-surfaced coastal road runs between Ideanau and LImbe. The latter town is now connected to Mokundange and Batoke by continuous urban sprawl which has engulfed former plantation areas. A major new "Limbe Deep Sea Port" is planned at Ngeme, east of Mokundange, which is anticipated to bring 20,000 jobs and stimulate development in the area (Ngah, 2016). There is also an oil refinery at Mokundange and oil prospecting in the area. According to Birdlife International (2021), the best surviving forest of the whole mountain is around Mt Etinde, although its lower slopes are outside the National Park. Continued development around Batoke and the deep sea port will inevitably further threaten these slopes unless serious conservation efforts are made. The port is also anticipated to increase tourism to the area which, if managed well, could be positive for conservation (Olsen et al., 2001). The DFID and German Government funded Mount Cameroon Project, established in 1994, funded development projects in the area in collaboration with MINEF under a Participatory Biodiversity Conservation Strategy but international funding has diminished since 2008.
As in many parts of Cameroon areas, high levels of internal migration (up to 90% in the north part of the park Awono et al., 2014) and community conflicts complicate conservation action and undermine traditional stewardship of natural resources and biodiversity by indigenous groups.
Lava flows and landslides have the potential to eliminate small populations of some taxa at any time.

Ecosystem services

MCNP is an important site for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) including several threatened species such as Prunus africana, Cola suboppositifolia and Oxyanthus montana (Njo & Wanie, 2018).
The remaining forest cover likely gives some protection against the high risk of landslides (Thierry et al., 2008) as well as the threat of flash flooding in this very high rainfall area. Despite the high rainfall there is limited permanently available water on the mountain due to the volcanic soils. The forest contributes to buffering rainfall, increasing its availability, while the cloud forest layer intercepts atmospheric moisture and is likely to increase availability in the dry season.
The site is an IBA, KBA and AZE site, important for a rich fauna including 210 bird species of which two are strictly endemic, (Zosterops melanocephalus,VU, and Pternistis camerunensis, EN), two endemic shrews (Crocidura eisentrauti, VU, and Sylvisorex morio, EN) and two endemic rodents (Otomys burtoni, EN, and Lophuromys roseveari). It is one of very few sites in western Cameroon with remaining forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis, CR, estimated at 130 individuals; MINFOF, 2014) and is also important for Allochrocebus preussi (EN). The lowland forests of Mt Cameroon were formerly a key part of the range for Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus, EN) but these have likely been all but eliminated at the site (Gadsby et al., 2020).
The mountain is an obvious tourist attraction and close to the historic town of Limbe.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Chassalia laikomensis Cheek A(i), A(iii) False False False False False
Ardisia schlechteri Gilg A(i) True True True False False
Liparis kamerunensis Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Peperomia dusenii C.DC. A(i) True True True True False
Impatiens grandisepala Grey-Wilson A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Cola metallica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Chlorophytum petrophilum K.Krause A(i) True True True False False
Ardisia etindensis Taton A(i) True True True False False
Disperis kamerunensis Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Aframomum A(i) True True True False False
Lecaniodiscus punctatus J.B.Hall A(i) True True True False False
Andropogon pusillus Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Manniella cypripedioides Salazar, T.Franke, Zapfack & Beenken A(i) True True True False False
Polystachya cooperi Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Peperomia kamerunana C.D.C A(i) True True True False False
Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Habenaria batesii la Croix A(i) True True True False False
Impatiens etindensis Cheek & Eb.Fisch. A(i) True True True False False
Uvariopsis korupensis Gereau & Kenfack A(i) True False True False False
Disperis nitida Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Luzula mannii (Buchenau) Kirschner & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. A(i) False False True False True
Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr. A(i) True True True False False
Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl. A(i) False False True False False
Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr. A(i) False False True False False
Piptostigma macrophyllum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur A(i) True True True False False
Helichrysum biafranum Hook.f. A(i) True True True True False
Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl. A(i) True True True False False
Coleus cataractum (B.J.Pollard) A.J.Paton A(i) True True True False False
Leeuwenbergia africana Letouzey & N.Hallé A(i) True False True False False
Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé A(i) True False True False False
Peperomia laeteviridis Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Palisota preussiana K.Schum. ex C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Mikaniopsis maitlandii C.D.Adams A(i) True True True False False
Mikaniopsis tedliei (Oliv. & Hiern) C.D.Adams A(i) False True True False False
Grossera major Pax A(i) True True True False False
Tricalysia atherura N.Hallé A(i) True False True False False
Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br. A(i) True True True False False
Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Hypseochloa cameroonensis C.E.Hubb. A(i) True True True True False
Begonia oxyanthera Warb. A(i) True False True False False
Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Lobelia columnaris Hook.f. A(i) True False True False False
Acanthopale decempedalis C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Brachystephanus longiflorus Lindau A(i) True True True False False
Brillantaisia lancifolia Lindau A(i) True True True False False
Isoglossa nervosa C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Anthocleista scandens Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Calochone acuminata Keay A(i) True True True False False
Ixora foliosa Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria camerunensis E.M.A.Petit A(i) True False False False False
Psychotria podocarpa Petit A(i) True True True False False
Brachystephanus giganteus Champl. A(i) True True True False False
Allophylus bullatus Radlk. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms A(i) True True True False False
Oxyanthus montanus Sonké A(i) True True True False False
Myosotis cameroonensis Cheek & R.Becker A(i) True True True True False
Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain A(i) True False False False False
Bidens mannii T.G.J.Rayner A(i) True True True False False
Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana A(i) False True True False False
Polygala tenuicaulis Hook.f. subsp. tenuicaulis A(i) True True True True False
Cheirostylis divina (Guinea) Summerh. var. ochyrae Szlach. & Olszewski A(i) True True True False False
Deschampsia mildbraedii Pilg. A(i) True True True False False
Sporobolus montanus Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Afroligusticum townsendii (Charpin & Fern.Casas) P.J.D.Winter A(i) True True True False False
Chassalia petitiana Piesschaert A(i) False False True False False
Morella arborea (Hutch.) Cheek A(i) False False True False False
Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr. A(i) False False True False False
Impatiens frithii Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau A(i) True True True False False
Genyorchis macrantha Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Dracaena kupensis Mwachala, Cheek, Eb.Fisch. & Muasya A(i) True True True False False
Habenaria obovata Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Sclerochiton preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Begonia quadrialata Warb. subsp. dusenii (Warb.) Sosef A(i) True True True False False
Wahlenbergia ramosissima (Hemsl.) Thulin subsp. ramosissima A(i) True False True False False
Diospyros korupensis Gosline A(i) True True True False False
Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh. A(i) True False True False False
Triclisia macrophylla Oliv. A(i) False False True False False
Drypetes burnleyae Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Oxyanthus doucetii Sonké & O.Lachenaud A(i) True True True False False
Stenandrium thomense (Milne-Redh.) Vollesen A(i) True True True False False
Mussaenda epiphytica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum josephi (Kuntze) Summerh. var. mahonii (Rolfe) J.J.Verm. A(i) True True True False False
Mischogyne gabonensis (Pellegr. ex Le Thomas) Gosline A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum gravidum Lindl. A(i) False False True False False
Crudia letouzeyi Breteler & Nguema A(i) True True True False False
Bulbostylis densa (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz. var. cameroonensis S.S.Hooper A(i) True True True False False
Beilschmiedia hutchinsoniana Robyns & R.Wilczek A(i), A(iv) True True True False False
Pavetta hookeriana Hiern var. hookeriana A(i) True False True False False
Beilschmiedia myrciifolia (S.Moore) Robyns & R.Wilczek A(i) True True True False False
Dryopteris glandulosopaleata J.P.Roux A(iv) True True True False False
Festuca camerunensis E.B.Alexeev A(iii) True True True True False
Sabicea urbaniana Wernham A(iv) True True True False False
Thelypteris pseudogueintziana (Bonap.) Alston A(iv) True True True False False

Chassalia laikomensis Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ardisia schlechteri Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Liparis kamerunensis Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Peperomia dusenii C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens grandisepala Grey-Wilson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola metallica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chlorophytum petrophilum K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ardisia etindensis Taton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Disperis kamerunensis Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lecaniodiscus punctatus J.B.Hall

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Andropogon pusillus Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Manniella cypripedioides Salazar, T.Franke, Zapfack & Beenken

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya cooperi Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Peperomia kamerunana C.D.C

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria batesii la Croix

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens etindensis Cheek & Eb.Fisch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis korupensis Gereau & Kenfack

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Disperis nitida Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Luzula mannii (Buchenau) Kirschner & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma macrophyllum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Helichrysum biafranum Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coleus cataractum (B.J.Pollard) A.J.Paton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leeuwenbergia africana Letouzey & N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Peperomia laeteviridis Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Palisota preussiana K.Schum. ex C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mikaniopsis maitlandii C.D.Adams

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mikaniopsis tedliei (Oliv. & Hiern) C.D.Adams

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Grossera major Pax

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tricalysia atherura N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hypseochloa cameroonensis C.E.Hubb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia oxyanthera Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lobelia columnaris Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Acanthopale decempedalis C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brachystephanus longiflorus Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brillantaisia lancifolia Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Isoglossa nervosa C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anthocleista scandens Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calochone acuminata Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ixora foliosa Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria camerunensis E.M.A.Petit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria podocarpa Petit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brachystephanus giganteus Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allophylus bullatus Radlk.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oxyanthus montanus Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Myosotis cameroonensis Cheek & R.Becker

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bidens mannii T.G.J.Rayner

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudagrostistachys africana subsp. africana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polygala tenuicaulis Hook.f. subsp. tenuicaulis

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cheirostylis divina (Guinea) Summerh. var. ochyrae Szlach. & Olszewski

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deschampsia mildbraedii Pilg.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sporobolus montanus Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afroligusticum townsendii (Charpin & Fern.Casas) P.J.D.Winter

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chassalia petitiana Piesschaert

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Morella arborea (Hutch.) Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens frithii Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Genyorchis macrantha Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dracaena kupensis Mwachala, Cheek, Eb.Fisch. & Muasya

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria obovata Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sclerochiton preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia quadrialata Warb. subsp. dusenii (Warb.) Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Wahlenbergia ramosissima (Hemsl.) Thulin subsp. ramosissima

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diospyros korupensis Gosline

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Triclisia macrophylla Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes burnleyae Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oxyanthus doucetii Sonké & O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Stenandrium thomense (Milne-Redh.) Vollesen

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mussaenda epiphytica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum josephi (Kuntze) Summerh. var. mahonii (Rolfe) J.J.Verm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mischogyne gabonensis (Pellegr. ex Le Thomas) Gosline

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum gravidum Lindl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Crudia letouzeyi Breteler & Nguema

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbostylis densa (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz. var. cameroonensis S.S.Hooper

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Beilschmiedia hutchinsoniana Robyns & R.Wilczek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta hookeriana Hiern var. hookeriana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Beilschmiedia myrciifolia (S.Moore) Robyns & R.Wilczek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dryopteris glandulosopaleata J.P.Roux

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Festuca camerunensis E.B.Alexeev

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea urbaniana Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Thelypteris pseudogueintziana (Bonap.) Alston

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Major
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation 100 Major

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Medium Ongoing - increasing
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Medium Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity High Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon National Park National Park protected/conservation area matches IPA 100

Mount Cameroon National Park

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
100

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Important Bird Area protected/conservation area encompasses IPA 54
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area encompasses IPA 54
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Alliance for Zero Extinction Site protected/conservation area encompasses IPA 54

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
54

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
54

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Alliance for Zero Extinction Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
54

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Site management plan in place A management plan for the National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist No value No value

Site management plan in place

A management plan for the National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Letouzey, R., 1968

Étude Phytogéographique du Cameroun

Letouzey, R., 1985

Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1: 500,000.

Cable, S. & Cheek, M., 1998

The Plants of Mount Cameroon: A Conservation Checklist.

Courade, G., 1974

Commentaire des cartes. Atlas régional. Ouest 1.

Fraser, P.J., Hall, J.B. & Healey, J.R., 1998

Climate of the Mount Cameroon Region: long and medium term rainfall, temperature and sunshine data. University of Wales, Bangor; Mount Cameroon Project and Cameroon Development Corporation. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication Number 16

Available online

Marzoli, A., Piccirillo, E.M., Renne, P.R., Bellieni, G., Iacumin, M., Nyobe, J.B. & Tongwa, A.T., 2000

The Cameroon Volcanic Line Revisited: Petrogenesis of Continental Basaltic Magmas from Lithospheric and Asthenospheric Mantle Sources

Journal of Petrology, Vol 41, page(s) 87-109

Fitton, J.G. & Dunlop, H.M., 1985

The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the 1025 origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt

Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol 72(1), page(s) 23-38

Maley, J. & Brenac, P., 1998

Vegetation dynamics, palaeoenvironments and climatic changes in the forests of western Cameroon during the last 28,000 years B.P.

Review of palaeobotany and palynology, Vol 99 (2), page(s) 157- 187

Olsen, K.B., Ekwoge, H., Ongie, R.M., Acworth, J., O’Kah, E.M. & Tako, C., 2001

A Community Wildlife Management Model from Mount Cameroon

Network Paper - Rural Development Forestry Network, Vol 25e (pub. Over) Available online

Awono, A., Tambe, A.A., Owona, H. & Barreau, E., 2014

REDD+ around Mount Cameroon, southwest region of Cameroon

REDD+ on the ground: a case book of subnational initiatives across the globe Available online

Ngah, D., 2016

Limbe deep seaport: Ngeme, not Isonge, will host site

Cameroon Tribune, 06 October 2016 Available online

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Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mount Cameroon National Park (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mount-cameroon-national-park/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)