Mont Eléphant

Mont de l'Eléphant

CMNTIPA002
Mont Eléphant

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: South (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 2.80000 N, 10.00000 E

Area: 23km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Three endemic or near-endemic plant species, as well as a number of other threatened plant species, qualify Mount Elephant as a potential IPA under criteria A(i). Mount Elephant contains two threatened habitat types, lowland rain forest and vertical rock, therefore the area would probably also qualify under criteria C. The species composition of the lowland rainforest, which is very rich in tree species from the Leguminosae subfamily Detarioideae, as well as poor in pioneer tree species (X.M. van der Burgt, pers. obs.), is an indication that the rainforest was relatively little disturbed by past human activities and past climatic change. The high density of timber trees and the presence of non-timber forest products, suggests the area might also qualify under criterion B(iii), likely containing > 3% of Cameroon's socially, economically, or culturally valuable plant species.

Site description

Mount Elephant is a 480 m hill in Ocean Division, Cameroon's South Region, 11 km from the coast, southeast of Kribi. The slopes are gradual on the north, east and west sides, but on the south side there is a long vertical rock wall about 50 m high. The area demarcated here covers 23 km2, encompassing the hilly terrain but it is feared much of this area may already have been lost.

Botanical significance

The site is part of the African Atlantic coastal forest, a vegetation type rich in rare and endemic species (Letouzey, 1968, 1986). Forest in this area is particularly rich in tree species in the Leguminosae subfamily Detarioideae. Begonia montis-elephantis (CR, Begoniaceae; Wilde 2002) and Mitriostigma monocaule (CR, Rubiaceae; Sonké et al 2009) are endemic, and Hypolytrum unispicatum (EN, Cyperaceae; Sosef & Simpson 2005) is near-endemic to the vertical rock wall at the South side of the hill (but also known from a single site in Equatorial Guinea). These species are highly threatened, because forest fires lit by farmers and oil palm plantation staff are advancing closer in the forest strip at the base of the vertical rock wall. In September 2017, the fires had advanced to 50 m from the base of the cliff. When these fires reach the base of the cliff, the trees will die, and the environment will become generally too sunny for these three shade-loving species. Begonia montis-elephantis may therefore soon become extinct. Three attempts have been made to collect seeds of these species for seed-banking; in February 2016, November 2016 and October 2017, but without success. Other rare species such as Didelotia ledermannii may now be extinct at this location, having not been recorded for many decades. Several species reach the northern limit of their distribution in this region and are therefore nationally rare, such as Gilbertiodendron scutatum (VU) which has only been recorded in Cameroon at this site.

Habitat and geology

Mount Elephant lies at the northern edge of the ancient Congo Craton, at the border of the paleo-proterozoic Nyong unit (part of the Ntem complex) and a northwest oriented, south-east thrusting tongue of the neoproterozoic Yaoundé group; these are metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks, predominantly gneiss, amphibolite, biotite, quartzite and micaschists (Nzenti et al., 2016; Teutsong et al., 2020). More detailed mapping appears to show Mount Elephant as a small intrusion of meta-syenite bordering an area of Biotite-hornblende gneiss and TTG (Moudiouh et al., 2020). Personal observation suggests the bedrock is of some kind of light-coloured and layered stone, which is being quarried by hand in two quarries at the top of the cliff. The stone is quarried by hand, carried to the roadside and sold in nearby villages and cities in Cameroon. The slabs are cut into egg-shaped plates which are used to grind food. Irregularly shaped pieces are used to cover floors and walls (X.M. van der Burgt, pers. obs.).
Soils in this area are mapped as haplic ferralsols (Yerrima & Ranst, 2005) but may vary locally on the raised terrain.
The climate is equatorial with c. 2,900 mm of rain per year at Kribi and a main dry season between late November and February but with all months receiving c. 60 mm or more (Tchouto, 2004; WMO, 2021). At Kribi there is only a slight reduction in precipitation in July rather than a distinct second dry season. Average annual temperature is around 25 °C, with monthly maxima ranging from 32.8 °C in February to 27.7 °C in August. Minima are more constant, ranging between 22.5 and 23.9 °C.
The area is part of the Lower Guinea subregion of the Guineo-Congolian region (White, 1986) and habitat includes lowland coastal rainforest, rich in Detaroid legumes, and a vertical, partially vegetated rock wall. However, there is little rainforest remaining and the area is largely surrounded by palm oil plantion and other cultivated land.

Conservation issues

The whole area in and around Mount Elephant is currently listed as an "Agro-industrial area" by the Cameroon government, implying that it will all be converted to agricultural land. To the South, a very large oil palm plantation was set up recently; there is no more forest left here. To the East, medium sized farms were set up recently and the forest is all but gone although this area is designated as Nyete community forest, a production forest reserve. In September 2017, there was still closed forest on the slopes and summit of the mountain. This forest has been subject to some logging in the past. This forest is also heavily hunted, so that the populations of edible animals are greatly reduced. As we write this (2021), the forest may already have been completely destroyed, or this may happen soon.

Ecosystem services

Mount Elephant provides habitat for numerous animal species. Populations of many of these have greatly declined because of the high hunting pressure. The hill provides water to nearby villages. The rainforest acts as a store of carbon.

Site assessor(s)

Xander van der Burgt, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Begonia montis-elephantis J.J. de Wilde A(i), A(iii) True True True True False Scarce
Gilbertiodendron scutatum Wieringa & Estrella A(i) False True True False False Scarce
Hypolytrum unispicatum Sosef & D.A. Simpson A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Rhaphiostylis elegans Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Copaifera religiosa J.Léonard A(i) False True False False False Scarce
Afzelia africana Sm. ex Pers. A(i) True False False False False
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) True False False False False
Albertisia capituliflora (Diels) Forman A(i) True False False False False
Ancistrorhynchus tenuicaulis Orchidaceae A(i) True False False False False
Angraecum angustum (Rolfe) Summerh. A(i), A(iii) True False False False False
Bulbophyllum alinae Szlach. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Cola brevipes Malvaceae A(i) True False False False False
Crotonogyne zenkeri Pax A(i) True False False False False
Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl. A(i) True False False False False
Dichapetalum oliganthum Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Dracaena viridiflora Engl. & K.Krause A(i) True False False False False
Duguetia dilabens Chatrou & Repetur A(i) True True True False False
Eurypetalum unijugum Harms A(i) True False False False False
Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke A(i) True False False False False
Garcinia staudtii Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Gilbertiodendron klainei (Pierre ex Pellegr.) J.Léonard A(i) True True True False False
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Memecylon candidum, Melastomataceae A(i) True False False False False
Mitriostigma monocaule, Rubiaceae A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Rhaphiostylis subsessilifolia Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Strychnos gnetifolia Gilg ex Onochie & Hepper A(i) True True True False False
Strychnos staudtii Gilg A(i) True False True False False
Uvariopsis vanderystii Robyns & Ghesq. A(i) True False False False False
Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep. A(i) True True True False False
Allexis obanensis Violaceae A(i) True True True False False
Habenaria phantasma, Orchidaceae A(i) True True True False False
Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True True False False False
Isolona pleurocarpa Diels A(i) True True False False False
Kylicanthe cornuata Descourv. & Stévart & Droissart A(i) True False True False False
Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké A(i) True True True False False
Vangueriella letestui Verdc. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Vangueriella zenkeri Verdc. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Bertiera rosseeliana Sonké, Esono & Nguembou A(i) True True True False False
Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J.Léonard A(i) False False True False True
Isomacrolobium leptorrhachis (Harms) Aubrév. & Pellegr. A(i) False False True False False
Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f. A(i) True True True False False
Pavetta mpomii S.D.Manning A(i) False False True False False
Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham A(i) False False False False False
Tieghemella africana Pierre A(i) False False True False False
Scaphopetalum riparium Engl. & K.Krause A(iv) True True True False False
Didelotia ledermannii Harms A(iii) False False False False False

Begonia montis-elephantis J.J. de Wilde

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Gilbertiodendron scutatum Wieringa & Estrella

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Hypolytrum unispicatum Sosef & D.A. Simpson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Rhaphiostylis elegans Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Copaifera religiosa J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Afzelia africana Sm. ex Pers.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Albertisia capituliflora (Diels) Forman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ancistrorhynchus tenuicaulis Orchidaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Angraecum angustum (Rolfe) Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum alinae Szlach.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola brevipes Malvaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Crotonogyne zenkeri Pax

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dichapetalum oliganthum Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dracaena viridiflora Engl. & K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Duguetia dilabens Chatrou & Repetur

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Eurypetalum unijugum Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Gilbertiodendron klainei (Pierre ex Pellegr.) J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Memecylon candidum, Melastomataceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mitriostigma monocaule, Rubiaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Rhaphiostylis subsessilifolia Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos gnetifolia Gilg ex Onochie & Hepper

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos staudtii Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis vanderystii Robyns & Ghesq.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allexis obanensis Violaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria phantasma, Orchidaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Isolona pleurocarpa Diels

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Kylicanthe cornuata Descourv. & Stévart & Droissart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vangueriella letestui Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vangueriella zenkeri Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bertiera rosseeliana Sonké, Esono & Nguembou

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Isomacrolobium leptorrhachis (Harms) Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta mpomii S.D.Manning

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tieghemella africana Pierre

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Scaphopetalum riparium Engl. & K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Didelotia ledermannii Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 99 Major
Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks] 1 Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
99
Importance:
Major

Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks]

Percent coverage:
1
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Harvesting of wild resources 100 Major

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying Low Ongoing - stable
Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals High Ongoing - stable
Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants Medium Ongoing - stable
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture High Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming High Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Letouzey, R., 1968

Étude Phytogéographique du Cameroun

Letouzey, R., 1985

Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1: 500,000.

World Meteorological Organization, 2019

World Weather Information Service: Kribi, Cameroon

Available online

White, A.F., 1983

The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa

Moudioh C., Tamehe, L., Ganno, S., Tankwa, Soares, M.B., Ghosh, R., Kankeu, B. & Nzenti, J.P., 2020

Tectonic setting of the Bipindi greenstone belt, northwest Congo craton, Cameroon: Implications on BIF deposition

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol 171(103971)

Teutsong, T.,Temga, J.P., Enyegue, A.A., Feuwo, N.N. & Bitom, D., 2020

Petrographic and geochemical characterization of weathered materials developed on BIF from the Mamelles iron ore deposit in the Nyong unit, South-West Cameroon

Acta Geochimica

J.J.F.E. de Wilde, 2002

Begonia montis-elephantis (Begoniaceae) a new species in section Scutobegonia from Cameroon

Wageningen University Papers, page(s) 259-266

Sonké, B., Simo, M., Dessein, S., 2009

Synopsis of the genus Mitriostigma (Rubiaceae) with a new monocaulous species from south Cameroon

Nordic Journal of Botany, Vol 27, page(s) 305-312

Sosef, M.S.M. & Simpson, D.A., 2005

Hypolytrum unispicatum (Cyperaceae), a new species from Cameroon

Blumea, Vol 50, page(s) 523-525

Yerima, B. & Van Ranst, E., 2005

Major Soil Classification Systems Used in the Tropics: Soils of Cameroon

Ndong Bidzang, F., Sobdjou Kemteu, C., Mero, Y., Ntomba Martial, S., Nzenti, J.P. & Mvondo Ondoa, J., 2016

Origin and Tectonic Framework of the Ngovayang Iron Massifs, South Cameroon

Science Research, Vol 4(1), page(s) 11-20

Recommended citation

Xander van der Burgt, Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mount Elephant (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mont-de-lelephant/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)