Mokoko-Onge

CMMTIPA040
Mokoko-Onge

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.36000 N, 9.00000 E

Area: 395km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The Mokoko-Onge forests qualify under IPA criterion A(i) as they harbour important populations of numerous globally threatened species. The site may also potentially qualify under criterion B due to the high number of conservation species and also under criterion C due to the importance and rarity of the coastal lowland forest.

Site description

The Mokoko-Onge forests neighbouring the Onge river on the western side of Mount Cameroon are the best preserved of the dense lowland forests once surrounding this huge volcanic mountain (Mwachala & Cheek, 2012). The area demarcated here incorporates the Onge proposed integral reserve and the former Mokoko River Forest Reserve, although these have been largely subsumed within a large logging concession as UFA 11-008 on recent maps of Cameroon's forestry estate (MINFOF & WRI, 2021).The site extends from the villages of Mokoko and Barombi Mokoko in the North, south to Bonjaro and Boa then west of the logging concession to meet the border of the proposed Ndongere National Park and south and east along the coast to the palm oil plantations at Ideanau. East of the Onge river which forms the eastern border of UFA 11-008, the border incorporates the Onge proposed integral reserve and extends north to Bambuko at the northeast tip of the UFA. Although it omits degraded habitat surrounding the Bomana Bakweri-Koto-Bambuko road, this area extending to the western boundary of the Mt Cameroon National Park would best be considered a buffer zone of the National Park and all further development considered subject to the impact on the neighbouring forests and their connectivity.

Botanical significance

This lowland forest site is one of the most important habitats in Cameroon due to the rarity of surviving coastal lowland rainforest, the very high biodiversity specific to the Mt Cameroon area, and its contribution to a surviving gradient of natural vegetation from sea-level forest to sub-alpine summit grassland that is unique in Africa (Cheek et al., 1996; Forboseh et al., 2011). It is part of a zone that has the highest plant species and generic diversity per degree square in tropical africa (Barthlott et al., 1996; Dagallier et al., 2020) and much of this diversity is supplied by the unprotected, dense lowland forests rather than the higher slopes which constitute the bulk of the Mt Cameroon National Park (Cable & Cheek, 1998; Mwachala & Cheek, 2012).
Over 70 globally threatened plants are recorded. Octoknema mokoko (CR), Afrothismia foertheriana (CR) and Mitriostigma bakweri (ined.) are considered globally unique to the site, while Cola cecidifolia (CR) may also be endemic since it is likely to have been lost from the only other known sites, nearby Southern Bakundu and Bimbia Bonadikombo, which have suffered severe degradation (Cheek et al., 2015; Cheek & Lawrence, 2018). Several other taxa are only known from elsewhere in the Mt Cameroon area or from one or two other key sites like Korup National Park.

Habitat and geology

Mount Cameroon is an active volcano and the highest mountain in West or Central Africa. It is part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line which extends northeastwards from the offshore islands of Annobon, Sao Tome and Bioko, through southwestern Cameroon to the Bamenda highlands and beyond. The mountain is formed of alkali basalt and basanite lavas overlying Cretacious to Miocene (or more recent) sediments which in turn rest on precambrian metamorphic basement rocks (Déreulle et al, 1987; Mathieu et al., 2011). Recent research and dating methods suggest most of the surface lavas appear to be relatively recent (<2 Ma) and roughly contemporaneous although eruptions continue to the present.
Soils of the Mokoko-Onge area are predominantly volcanic, mostly relatively old and well weathered, and fertile (fertility class 2 of four according to Hawkins and Brunt's (1965) classification) but with one major incursion of new lava from the 1922 eruption which reached the coast near Idenau, where there is also a patch of alluvial soils. Hawkins and Brunt (1965) map the area as an association of old volcanic (red, clayey, acidic, deep, well draining with lateritic rubble) and sedimentary soils from overlying sediments, while Valerie (1970) indicates a juxtaposition of eutrophic brown mull soils with red ferrallitic sesquioxide soils on basic rocks. Sandy areas are also mentioned on specimen records cited by Mwachala & Cheek (2012). Fertility of remaining well-forested areas may be less high than areas already cleared for farming.
The Mount Cameroon area has a seasonal monsoon climate but with considerable local variation in levels of precipitation due to the orographic influence of the 4000 m mountain immediately adjacent to the Atlantic ocean. Between April and October southwest winds bring rain which is deposited in especially high volumes at the southwest foot of the mountain (Cable & Cheek, 1998). Long-term (30- 40 year) records up to 1993 indicate an annual mean of 8392 mm at Ideanau at the southeastern tip of this site, and 9086 mm at Debundscha 15 km to the south where a maximum of nearly 17 m was recorded in one year (Fraser et al., 1998). By contrast, at Mokoko on the northern edge of the site the mean drops to 2844 mm, with three months (December-February) registering <25mm (although the measuring period was much shorter (N = 9-13). Temperatures varied relatively little seasonally but were slightly higher in the north with Mokoko registering monthly means ranging from 27.5 to 31.8 °C while at Ideanau the range was only 29-30.4 °C.
Under Letouzey's (1981) scheme the area is mostly designated as Atlantic Biafran forest with Caesalpinaceae (type 228) punctuated by semi-deciduous colonising elements (type 167).

Conservation issues

The Bambuko-Balundu Native Authority Reserve was originally demarcated in 1936-7 and gazetted in 1952 by the colonial authorities as a timber reserve, with a secondary aim of watershed protection (Acworth et al., 2021). It became the Mokoko River Forest Reserve in the 1970s. To the north and west, the "Boa plain", approximately 30,000 ha of secondary forest on floodplain, was targeted by colonial farmers for plantations and later reverted to the state to be leased to the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC). Although by the mid 1900s only c.2500 ha had been actively planted by the CDC and another 4000 ha "illegally" squatted by small-scale farmers, planting of oil palm has intensified in the last decade (Mbom, 2009). Population pressure is high with 50,000 people estimated to live on these plains, mostly in fishing villages on the coast but with c.90% of households actively farming the land. High levels of migration due to fertile soils and employment opportunities in the CDC plantations, along with the confused colonial legacy of land tenure and the lure of logging profits, have created complex relationships between those competing for resources (Acworth et al., 2021). Intentions of the MCP, funded by the UK and German governments, to promote sustainable resource use in the Mokoko reserve gave way to involvement in more urgent processes at the "farm-forest" interface of the Boa plain area, which acts as a protective belt for the Mokoko reserve itself. Although the MCP eventually managed to assuage mistrust of some groups and promote sustainable management of the forests in a participatory context, and organisations like the Mokoko Wildlife Management Association (MWMA) have formed to promote sustainable wildlife management within the forests, the MCP withdrawal in 2002 threatened to leave a void. Cheek & Prance (2015) report that although logging was occurring in the Onge forests, this has not proceeded as fast as was once feared, while much feared privatisation of the CDC and associated acceleration of plantation development has not occurred. However, efforts to establish an Onge integral forest reserve have yet to bear fruit, and most of the habitat connecting the slopes of Mt Cameroon with the lowland forests has been severely degraded, only leaving a precarious remaining wildlife corridor. In the Bomana area, conservation efforts have also met opposition from from local interests keen to strike deals with logging firms (Acworth et al., 2021).
Most of the heart of the IPA forms a 160 km2 section of production forest unit, UFA 11-008 which has two further disjunct units northwest and southwest of Bakossi National Park and is leased to the Cameroonian company SEPFCO. Forest monitoring suggests 553 ha of forest were lost between 2001 and 2018, with disturbance mainly in the northwest part (OpenTimberPortal, 2021).
Local organisations ERUDEF and Ecological Balance have implemented a project to replenish stocks and protect existing trees of the commercially valuable Microberlinia bisulcata (Zebrawood) in the Mokoko forest where it has been the subject of heavy logging (ERUDEF, 2021; Truscott, 2021).

Ecosystem services

The site provides stocks and a genetic reservoir of valuable timber species such as Microberlinia bisulcata (Zebrawood). Seedlings have been raised from here to replenish other areas (Truscott, 2021).
Existing forest cover provides watershed protection for rivers supplying a large population with drinking water and important coastal nurseries, as well as protecting against flooding (Yaron, 1998).
The site provides very important habitat for threatened animals: it is a major part of a zone demarcated as an IBA, KBA and an Alliance for Zero Extinction site.
The forest is a valuable store of carbon which, in estimations of alternative land-use options in the 1990s, was much the largest contributor to scenarios in which sustainable land-use in the Mokoko area exceeded the dollar value of timber, palm-oil and agricultural use (Yaron et al., 1998).
Mount Cameroon is a significant tourist destination. The lowland forests have great untapped potential to be part of ecotourist ventures.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Belonophora ongensis S.E.Dawson & Cheek A(i), A(iii) True True False False False
Hoplestigma pierreanum Gilg A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Cola metallica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Chlorophytum petrophilum K.Krause A(i) True True True False False
Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev. A(i) True False True False False
Piptostigma longepilosum A(i) True True True False False
Cryptosepalum korupense Burgt A(i) True True True False False
Tessmannia korupensis Burgt A(i) True True True False False
Dactyladenia mannii (Oliv.) Prance & F.White A(i) True True True False False
Cola praecuta Brenan & Keay A(i) True True True False False
Cola cecidiifolia Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Gastrodia africana Kraenzl. A(i), A(iii) False False False False False
Dactyladenia cinerea (Engl. ex De Wild.) Prance & F.White A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria elephantina Lachenaud & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke A(i) False False False False False
Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham A(i) True False True False False
Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. A(i) False False True False True
Diospyros crassiflora Hiern A(i) False False False False True
Angylocalyx talbotii Baker f. ex Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) False False True False False
Nothospondias staudtii Engl. A(i) False False True False False
Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr. A(i) False False False False False
Vepris lecomteana (Pierre) Cheek & T.Heller A(i) True False False False False
Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl. A(i) False False True False False
Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl. A(i) True False True False False
Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham A(i) True True True False False
Begonia preussii Warb. A(i) True False True False False
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Drypetes staudtii (Pax) Hutch. A(i) True False True False False
Drypetes preussii (Pax) Hutch. A(i) True True True False False
Garcinia kola Heckel A(i) False False False False True
Salacia lenticellosa Loes. ex Harms A(i) True True True False False
Afrofittonia silvestris Lindau A(i) True False True False False
Brillantaisia lancifolia Lindau A(i) True True True False False
Eurypetalum unijugum Harms A(i) True True True False False
Loesenera talbotii Baker f. A(i) False False True False False
Hugonia macrophylla Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Strychnos staudtii Gilg A(i) False True True False False
Psychotria camerunensis E.M.A.Petit A(i) True False False False False
Psychotria podocarpa Petit A(i) True True True False False
Dicranolepis polygaloides Gilg ex H.Pearson A(i) True True True False False
Cuviera talbotii (Wernham) Verdc. A(i) True True True False False
Strychnos elaeocarpa Gilg ex Leeuwenb. A(i) True False True False False
Medusandra richardsiana Brenan A(i) True True True False False
Rinorea thomasii Achound. A(i) True True True False False
Gaertnera letouzeyi Malcomber A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria asterogramma O.Lachenaud A(i) True True True False False
Impatiens hians Hook.f. var. bipindensis (Gilg) Grey-Wilson A(i) True True True False False
Isomacrolobium leptorrhachis (Harms) Aubrév. & Pellegr. A(i) True False True False False
Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. angustifolia (Summerh.) Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl. A(i) True False True False False
Anthonotha xanderi Breteler A(i) False False False False False
Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké A(i) True False True False False
Belonophora talbotii (Wernham) Keay A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Pyrenacantha longirostrata Villiers A(i) True True True False False
Campylospermum umbricola (Tiegh.) Farron A(i) False False False False False
Talbotiella korupensis Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True False True False False
Chazaliella obanensis (Wernham) Petit & Verdc. A(i) True True True False False
Rinorea dewitii Achound. A(i) True True True False False
Cola suboppositifolia Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Pseudosabicea batesii (Wernham) N.Hallé A(i) True True True False False
Drypetes burnleyae Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Afrothismia hydra Sainge & T.Franke A(i) True True True False False
Afrothismia foertheriana T.Franke, Sainge & Agerer A(i) True True True True False
Rinorea amietii Achound. A(i) True False True False False
Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain A(i) True False False False False
Trichoscypha mannii Hook.f. A(i) False True True False False
Salacia nigra Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J.Léonard A(i) False True True False False
Aframomum makandensis Dhetchuvi A(i) True True True False False
Haplormosia monophylla (Harms) Harms A(i) False True True False False
Aframomum tchoutoui D.J.Harris & Wortley A(i) False True True False False
Aframomum plicatum D.J.Harris & Wortley A(i) True True True False False
Garcinia staudtii Engl. A(i) True False True False False
Globulostylis minor Wernham A(iii) True True True False False
Guaduella humilis Clayton A(i) True False True False False
Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True True True False False
Leeuwenbergia africana Letouzey & N.Hallé A(i) True False True False False
Leptoderris aurantiaca, Leguminosae A(i) False True True False False
Piptostigma oyemense Pellegr. A(i) False True True False False
Psychotria njumei Cheek A(i) False False True False False
Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep. A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea urbaniana Wernham A(iv) True True True False False

Belonophora ongensis S.E.Dawson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hoplestigma pierreanum Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola metallica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chlorophytum petrophilum K.Krause

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma longepilosum

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cryptosepalum korupense Burgt

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tessmannia korupensis Burgt

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dactyladenia mannii (Oliv.) Prance & F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola praecuta Brenan & Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola cecidiifolia Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Gastrodia africana Kraenzl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dactyladenia cinerea (Engl. ex De Wild.) Prance & F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria elephantina Lachenaud & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Diospyros crassiflora Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Angylocalyx talbotii Baker f. ex Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Nothospondias staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vepris lecomteana (Pierre) Cheek & T.Heller

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deinbollia maxima Gilg ex Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia preussii Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Drypetes staudtii (Pax) Hutch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes preussii (Pax) Hutch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia kola Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Salacia lenticellosa Loes. ex Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrofittonia silvestris Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Brillantaisia lancifolia Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Eurypetalum unijugum Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Loesenera talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hugonia macrophylla Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos staudtii Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria camerunensis E.M.A.Petit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria podocarpa Petit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dicranolepis polygaloides Gilg ex H.Pearson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cuviera talbotii (Wernham) Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Strychnos elaeocarpa Gilg ex Leeuwenb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Medusandra richardsiana Brenan

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea thomasii Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Gaertnera letouzeyi Malcomber

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria asterogramma O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens hians Hook.f. var. bipindensis (Gilg) Grey-Wilson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Isomacrolobium leptorrhachis (Harms) Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. angustifolia (Summerh.) Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anthonotha xanderi Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Belonophora talbotii (Wernham) Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pyrenacantha longirostrata Villiers

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Campylospermum umbricola (Tiegh.) Farron

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Talbotiella korupensis Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chazaliella obanensis (Wernham) Petit & Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea dewitii Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola suboppositifolia Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudosabicea batesii (Wernham) N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes burnleyae Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrothismia hydra Sainge & T.Franke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrothismia foertheriana T.Franke, Sainge & Agerer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea amietii Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichoscypha mannii Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia nigra Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum makandensis Dhetchuvi

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Haplormosia monophylla (Harms) Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum tchoutoui D.J.Harris & Wortley

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum plicatum D.J.Harris & Wortley

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globulostylis minor Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Guaduella humilis Clayton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leeuwenbergia africana Letouzey & N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leptoderris aurantiaca, Leguminosae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma oyemense Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria njumei Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea urbaniana Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 90 Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
90
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Forestry 50

Forestry

Percent coverage:
50
Importance:

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Energy production & mining - Oil & gas drilling Low Future - inferred threat
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming High Ongoing - trend unknown
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming High Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown

Energy production & mining - Oil & gas drilling

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Future - inferred threat

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon National Park National Park protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA No value
Ndognere Proposed National Park National Park protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA No value

Mount Cameroon National Park

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Ndognere Proposed National Park

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Important Bird Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 260
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 260
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Alliance for Zero Extinction Site protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 260
Estuaire du Rio Del Rey Ramsar protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA No value

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
260

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
260

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Alliance for Zero Extinction Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
260

Estuaire du Rio Del Rey

Protected area:
Ramsar
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place There does not appear to be a management plans for the FMU 11-008. A management plan for the neighbouring National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist. No value No value

No management plan in place

There does not appear to be a management plans for the FMU 11-008. A management plan for the neighbouring National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist.
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

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Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1: 500,000.

Barthlott, W., Lauer, W. & Placke, A., 1996

Global distribution of species diversity in vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity.

Erkunde, Vol 50, page(s) 317-328

Cable, S. & Cheek, M., 1998

The Plants of Mount Cameroon: A Conservation Checklist.

Fraser, P.J., Hall, J.B. & Healey, J.R., 1998

Climate of the Mount Cameroon Region: long and medium term rainfall, temperature and sunshine data. University of Wales, Bangor; Mount Cameroon Project and Cameroon Development Corporation. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication Number 16

Available online

Hawkins, P. & Brunt, M., 1965

The soil and ecology of west Cameroon. Vol. 1, Part 2

Déruelle, B., N'Ni, J. & Kambou, R., 1987

Mount Cameroon: an active volcano of the Cameroon Line

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol 6(2), page(s) 197-214

Forboseh, P., Sunderland, T., Comskey, J. & Balinga, M., 2011

Tree Population Dynamics of Three Altitudinal Vegetation Communities on Mount Cameroon (1989-2004)

Journal of Mountain Science, Vol 8, page(s) 495–504.

Cheek, M. & Prance, G., 2015

Dactyladenia mannii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T39510A2928487

Available online

ERuDeF, 2021

Microberlinia bisulcata Project in the Mokoko Forest Reserve & Mt. Cameroon

Available online

Truscott, 2021

Illegal logging threatens rare Cameroonian hardwood with extinction

Mongabay, 4 October 2021 Available online

Mbom, F. T., 2009

CDC Starts Planting At The Boa Plain

Cameroon Post, 20 April 2009 Available online

Mwachala, G. & Cheek, M., 2012

Dracaena mokoko sp. nov. (Dracaenaceae – Ruscaceae/ Asparagaceae) a critically endangered forest species from Mokoko, Cameroon

Nordic Journal of Botany, Vol 30, page(s) 389–393

Acworth, J., Edwoge, H., Mbani, J-M. & Ntube, G., 2001

Towards Participatory Biodiversity Conservation in the Onge-Mokoko Forests of Cameroon

Rural Development Forestry Network, Vol network paper 25d (pub. Overseas Development Institute) Available online

Open Timber Portal, 2021

Open Timber Portal: SEPFCO

Available online

Yaron, G., 1998

Alternative Land Use Options in the Mount Cameroon Region: An Economic Analysis: A report prepared for the Mount Cameroon Project and Department for International Development

Available online

Mathieu, L. Kervyn, M. & Ernst, G., 2011

Field evidence for flank instability, basal spreading and volcano-tectonic interactions at Mt Cameroon, West Africa

Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol 73(7), page(s) 851–867

Cheek, M., 2018

Afrothismia foertheriana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T110096961A110096966

Available online

Cheek, M. & Lawrence, P., 2018

Cola cecidiifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T43880A110085145

Available online

Gosline, G. & Malécot, V., 2011

A monograph of Octoknema (Octoknemaceae — Olacaceae s.l.)

Kew Bulletin, Vol 66, page(s) 367–404

MINFOF (Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife) & WRI (World Resources Instiute), 2021

Forest Atlas of Cameroon

Available online

Dagallier, L-M.J., Janssens, S.B., Dauby, G., Blach-Overgaard, A., Mackinder, B.A., Droissart, V., Svenning, J.C., Sosef, M.S.M., Stévart, T., Harris, D.J., Sonké, B., Wieringa, J.J., Hardy, O.J., Couvreur, T.L.P., 2020

Cradles and museums of generic plant diversity across tropical Africa

New Phytologist, Vol 225(5), page(s) 2196-2213

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Mokoko-Onge (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/mokoko-onge/ (Accessed on 27/05/2024)