Lower Rovuma Escarpment

Escarpas do Baixo Rovuma

MOZTIPA023
Lower Rovuma Escarpment

Country: Mozambique

Administrative region: Cabo Delgado (Province)

Central co-ordinates: 10.79189 S, 40.12267 E

Area: 1999km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, B(ii)Site contains an exceptional number of species of high conservation importance, C(iii)Site contains nationally threatened or restricted habitat or vegetation types, AND/OR habitats that have severely declined in extent nationally

IPA assessment rationale

The Lower Rovuma Escarpment is one of the most important sites for plant diversity and local endemism in Mozambique and qualifies as an IPA under all three criteria. Under criterion A(i), it holds important populations of 54 globally threatened plant species, of which 19 are assessed as Endangered and one (Diospyros magogoana) is currently assessed as Critically Endangered. Other globally threatened species are likely to be added to this list when a full Red List for the region is finalised. The site holds at least 22 qualifying species under criterion B(ii) and hence significantly exceeds the 3% threshold for this criterion. It also holds nationally important areas of Rovuma coastal dry forest, a threatened habitat, and this IPA holds the largest extent of continuous woody coastal vegetation in the whole of Cabo Delgado Province, hence qualifying under criterion C(iii).

Site description

The Lower Rovuma Escarpment IPA is situated in Palma and Nangade Districts of northeast Cabo Delgado Province. This landscape-scale site extends for ca. 90 km WSW to ENE between the towns of Nangade inland and Quionga and Palma on the coast, parallel to the Rovuma River valley which here forms the international border with Tanzania. The IPA covers the Mozambique side of the Rovuma floodplain and escarpment and the adjacent low undulating plateau. It contains a range of habitats, some of which are scarce elsewhere in Mozambique or in East Africa more generally, and includes the largest contiguous extent of dry coastal forest in East Africa (Clarke 2011). It is therefore a key site within the Coastal Forest of Eastern Africa biodiversity hotspot (CEPF 2020). This large area could potentially be subdivided into discrete management units but maintaining the integrity of the landscape as a whole is critical to its conservation (Timberlake et al. 2010).

Botanical significance

Of the rich and varied mosaic of habitats represented within this IPA, the extensive intact areas of coastal dry forest and thicket are of primary botanical significance (Timberlake et al. 2011). These are the most extensive areas of forests within the proposed Rovuma Centre of Plant Endemism (Burrows & Timberlake 2011). Three main forest blocks are recorded within the IPA: (1) the Nhica do Rovuma – Macanga River Block, an extensive area of up to 300 km2, containing two core forest areas; (2) the Pundanhar Block which contains c. 120 km2 of forest; and (3) the Nangade Block, a much smaller and more disturbed area with only c. 5 km2 of undisturbed forest remaining (Clarke 2011). Together, these forest blocks comprise two of the four "high priority" sites for the conservation of coastal dry forest in northeast Mozambique proposed by Timberlake et al. (2010). The extensive intact forest and woodland vegetation within the IPA is in marked contrast to the northern side of the Rovuma Escarpment in southeast Tanzania where much of the natural vegetation has been heavily denuded or replaced by farmland and settlement.
These forests are characterised by high species turnover and a high number of highly range-restricted and threatened species (Timberlake et al. 2011; Darbyshire et al. 2019, 2020). Over 50 globally threatened plant species are present, including several for which this site contains the majority of the global population, notably Casearia rovumensis (EN), Crossopetalum mossambicense (EN), Garcinia acutifolia (VU), Pyrostria sp. nov. “makovui” (EN), Vangueria domatiosa (EN), Vitex franceseana (EN) and Xylopia lukei (EN). It is also the only known Mozambican site for Coffea schliebenii (VU) which is otherwise scarce in the Lindi region of Tanzania, and for Combretum lindense (not yet evaluated on the Red List), Didymosalpinx callianthus (EN) and Diospyros magogoana (currently CR but without the Mozambique population included in the assessment) which are otherwise known only from a single location each in Tanzania.
The seasonal pan landscape that dominates parts of the IPA also supports rare and threatened species, including the recently described endemics Convolvulus goyderi (EN) and Ochna dolicharthros (VU) (Crawford & Darbyshire 2015; Darbyshire et al. 2020).
Botanical exploration of this vast area is incomplete and has focussed on only small sections to date. The likelihood of further discoveries of new species to science is high, particularly among the under-explored herbaceous flora (Darbyshire et al. 2020), whilst undescribed species already known to occur at this site include Combretum sp. A and Deinbollia sp. A of Burrows et al. (2018). Several scarce species that have so far only been recorded from the environs of Palma may also be found within this IPA following a more complete survey; these include Ammannia pedroi (VU) and Striga diversifolia (DD) in more open habitats and Pavetta lindina (EN) in forested areas.

Habitat and geology

The geology and landscape of this region is dominated by a gentle isocline of Quaternary or Neogene sedimentary deposits which runs northwest from the coast towards the Mueda Plateau in Mozambique and the Makonde Plateau in Tanzania, with the Rovuma River cutting a sharp channel of ca. 10 km wide into the deposits. On the Mozambique side, the slopes and top of the steep Rovuma escarpment are freely drained and support a dense woody vegetation on red-brown sandy/clay loam soils. Some outcrops of iron-rich sandstones, likely of the Mikindani Formation of mid-Neogene origin (ca. 10 – 15 mya), are recorded in the east of this region and these may be more widespread than currently documented along the escarpment given that sandstone outcrops were observed in association with some of the dry forest patches across this region (Timberlake et al. 2010). Further south in Cabo Delgado, for example at Quiterajo [MOZTIPA021], there is a close association between Mikindani sandstone and dry forest patches. This rock gives rise to a coarsely sandy well-drained red soil. In the southern and central portion of the IPA and continuing southwards, the gentle undulations in the sedimentary deposits give rise to a series of large shallow seasonal pans which support a much more open grassland / savanna landscape underlain by more clay-rich soils (Timberlake et al. 2010; Clarke 2011).
A detailed description of the main vegetation types of this region is provided by Timberlake et al. (2010) and Clarke (2011), with summaries of the woody vegetation provided by Burrows et al. (2018) under their “Rovuma Basin Coastal Thicket-Forest” and “Rovuma Coastal Woodland” vegetation types; what follows is a brief summary.
The dry forest patches often occur as small lenses within a mosaic of miombo woodland. In areas of intact forest, the canopy is typically 8 – 20 m tall with emergent trees up to 40 m in some areas. The composition of these forests varies considerably across the IPA. In the western portion of the site in Nangade District, forest dominated by Scorodophloeus fischeri and Guibourtia schliebenii occurs, sometimes with Hymenaea verrucosa, but this forest type is not recorded further east in Palma District, where a more mixed tree assemblage occurs. Here, Manilkara sansibarensis, M. discolor, Terminalia (formerly Pteleopsis) myrtifolia and Ochna mossambicensis can be common. Canopy emergents include Afzelia quanzensis, Berlinia orientalis, Dialium holstii, Hymenaea verrucosa, Milicia excelsa and Terminalia myrtifolia. A range of Rubiaceae and Diospyros spp. are important in the understorey (Timberlake et al. 2010; Clarke 2011). Whilst some extensive and intact patches occur, much of the forest appears to be secondary in nature, and is believed to have regenerated over the past 50 – 60 years, as evidenced by the numerous multi-trunked larger trees, indicating widespread coppicing, and by the frequent occurrence of charcoal in forest soil profiles (Clarke 2011). Frequent throughout the region are large termitaria up to 20 m in diameter that support patches of dense woody vegetation that can include dry forest species. Hirtella zanzibarica is particularly characteristic of termitaria woodland, with Hymenaea verrucosa and Berlinia orientalis also frequent (Timberlake et al. 2010).
In areas with a high water table, both in the lowlands towards the coast and in the ecotone between the seasonal pans and the well-drained wooded areas, the range-restricted tree Berlinia orientalis (VU) can dominate, often in association with Brachystegia spiciformis. This assemblage is somewhat intermediate between a miombo woodland and a dry forest (Clarke 2011). Typical miombo woodland is frequent on well-drained soils throughout the region, with dominant species including B. spiciformis, Parinari curatellifolia and Uapaca nitida, and other common components including Bobgunnia madagascariensis, Julbernardia globiflora, Pterocarpus angolensis, and Sclerocarya caffra (Timberlake et al. 2010; Clarke 2011).
Significant areas of the vegetation have experienced varying degrees of disturbance and subsequent fallow periods, which have given rise to extensive seral scrub forest and thicket assemblages, containing a mixture of miombo and pioneering dry forest species (Clarke 2011).
Extensive edaphic grasslands and lightly wooded grasslands occur both on the Rovuma floodplain, where a palm savanna with large trees of Borassus aethiopum is found, and in the pan landscape where the smaller palms Hyphaene compressa and Phoenix reclinata occur together with scattered miombo tree species.
The climate of this region is highly seasonal, with a prolonged dry season from May to November and a short hot and wet season mainly between December and April. Annual rainfall, at 900 – 1100 mm per year, is amongst the lowest along the East African coastline (Clarke 2011).

Conservation issues

At present, none of this extensive site is protected for nature conservation. A portion of the Nangade (western) forest block is designated as a Hunting Concession, with a camp and some staff in place at least in the late 2000s, which afforded some protection for the forest in order to preserve hunting stocks (Timberlake et al. 2010). The eastern-most parts of the site were included in the proposed Palma National Reserve, which was intended mainly to protected the rich marine and coastal resources of this area but with the inclusion of some of the terrestrial habitats. However, this reserve has not come to fruition, nor to date has the proposed Rovuma River mouth Trans-Frontier Conservation Area shared with Tanzania. The entirety of the IPA is included within the vast Palma Key Biodiversity Area.
Timberlake et al. (2010) estimate approximately 65% of the forest cover has been lost in the area of Nangade-Palma-Mocímboa da Praia. However, the most severe losses have been seen outside of the IPA boundary, around and between Palma and Mocímboa where the landscape is now severely degraded with only small pockets of high-biodiversity-value habitat remaining. It is for this reason that this area is excluded from the IPA, although there are still some important forest patches there that would benefit from conservation efforts. Whilst woody vegetation is extensive within the IPA, much of the forest appears to be secondary in nature (see Habitat and Geology above). The first wave of deforestation is likely to have occurred in the Portuguese colonial period when there was extensive timber exploitation. This region witnessed heavy military action during the war for independence and the post-independence civil war (1960s – 1991) which led to significant depopulation, and it is during this time that the extensive woody vegetation appears to have reestablished. Since the 1990s, parts of this region have experienced rapid repopulation, driven in part by improved transport routes and in part by exploration for oil and gas across the region (Timberlake et al. 2010, 2011; Darbyshire et al. 2020). However, the population remains low relative to other parts of the coastal lowlands, with particularly low numbers of people in the areas with seasonally inundated soils, and Palma District has one of the lowest population densities in East Africa (Clarke 2011). The recent violent insurgency in coastal Cabo Delgado since 2017 has temporarily halted much of the migration into the region, but in the longer term there is likely to be a continuing trend of population growth and increased pressure on resources once stability returns.
The most significant threat to this IPA is the ongoing and widespread clearance of forest and woodland for shifting subsistence agriculture, aided by burning. This is particularly evident along transport routes and in the western portion of the IPA where large areas are being actively cleared. Uncontrolled fires primarily impact the miombo woodland as these have a much higher fuel-load due to the abundance of grasses. However, they can also penetrate the seral scrub forests and thickets and in the longer term can result in a gradual erosion of the dry forest margins (Clarke 2011).
Some charcoal production and firewood extraction occur in this region but these are not considered to be a severe threat. The main concern is that exhaustion of wood supplies closer to Palma and around the city of Mtwara in Tanzania, may result in increase exploitation of the woodlands and forests of the Rovuma Escarpment in the future. Commercial and illegal logging have not been considered a major threat until now (Clarke 2011). There are some logging concessions in parts of the IPA, particularly in the west, but these are intended to be sustainable. Most illegal logging to date has targeted widespread woodland species such as Afzelia quanzensis, Millettia stuhlmannii and Pterocarpus angolensis (Timberlake et al. 2010). However, there is a concern that the growing lawlessness in northeast Cabo Delgado associated with the insurgency may result in increased illegal logging in the forests.
Oil and gas exploration in 2007 – 2008 resulted in an extensive network of cut lines being made across the landscape to allow for vehicle access. These were each 3 – 5 m wide and avoided the felling of larger tree species, with the smaller species being coppiced to promote regrowth. The lines were closed in late 2008 and are showing good signs of regeneration. Subsequent industrial activity in the region has focused offshore, with two large liquefied natural gas (LNG) extraction operations underway. Onshore infrastructure is centred on the Afungi Peninsula to the southeast of Palma and so not directly impacting the Lower Rovuma Escarpment area, but is likely to result in accelerated migration into the region once the regional security concerns are overcome; this is likely to be a significant future threat.
Given the significant threats to the future of these critical habitats, there is an urgent need to protect the Lower Rovuma Escarpment landscape and to ensure that any exploitation of its resources is sustainable in the long term.

Ecosystem services

This area provides a wide range of important ecosystem services of both local and regional importance. The large, contiguous extent of woodland and forest is a significant carbon sink due to the vast woody biomass (Clarke 2011). This area is also reported to be a major water source for the towns of Palma and Mocímboa da Praia (Timberlake et al. 2010). The open savanna landscape around the extensive pan systems in the south of the IPA support a rich wildlife, including populations of Elephant, Roan and Sable Antelope, African Wild Dog and Lion and these species find dry-season refuge in the more densely wooded and forested areas along the Rovuma escarpment, with well-established migration routes between the Rovuma floodplain and the pan landscape (Timberlake et al. 2010, Clarke 2011). This dense woody vegetation also protects the underlying sedimentary deposits and soils from excessive erosion, and so protects the ecosystem of the lower Rovuma River and its mouth. If and when the security concerns in this region of Mozambique are overcome, the Rovuma Escarpment should also have high ecotourism potential, given its striking landscape heterogeneity, relatively intact habitats and rich wildlife (Clarke 2011).

Site assessor(s)

Iain Darbyshire, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Hexalobus mossambicensis N.Robson A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Monanthotaxis suffruticosa P.H.Hoekstra A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Monanthotaxis trichantha (Diels) Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Xylopia lukei D.M.Johnson & Goyder A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Crossopetalum mossambicense I.Darbysh. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Salacia orientalis N.Robson A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Garcinia acutifolia N.Robson A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Combretum lindense Exell & Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Baphia macrocalyx Harms A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Berlinia orientalis Brenan A(i) True True True False False Common
Millettia makondensis Harms A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Clerodendrum lutambense Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Premna hans-joachimii Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Premna tanganyikensis Moldenke A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Vitex carvalhi Gürke A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Vitex franceseana I.Darbysh. & Goyder A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Casearia rovumensis I.Darbysh. & J.E.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Convolvulus goyderi J.R.I.Wood A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Grewia limae Wild A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Memecylon torrei A.Fern. & R.Fern. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Ochna dolicharthros F.M.Crawford & I.Darbysh. A(i) True True True True False Occasional
Chassalia colorata J.E.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Coffea schliebenii Bridson A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Didymosalpinx callianthus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Leptactina papyrophloea Verdc. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Oxyanthus biflorus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Oxyanthus strigosus Bridson & J.E.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Psydrax micans (Bullock) Bridson A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Tricalysia schliebenii Robbr. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Tricalysia semidecidua Bridson A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Vangueria domatiosa J.E.Burrows A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Vepris allenii I.Verd. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Pyrostria makovui K.W.Matheka, Goyder & I.Darbysh. A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Erianthemum lindense (Sprague) Danser A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Gonatopus petiolulatus (Peter) Bogner A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Guibourtia schliebenii (Harms) J.Leonard A(i) False True True False False Occasional
Millettia impressa Harms subsp. goetzeana (Harms) J.B.Gillett A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Pavetta macrosepala Hiern var. macrosepala A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Platysepalum inopinatum Harms A(i) False True True False False Scarce
Sterculia schliebenii Mildbr. A(i) False True True False False Scarce
Vismia pauciflora Milne-Redh. A(i) True True True False False Scarce
Mildbraedia carpinifolia (Pax) Hutch. A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Acacia latistipulata Harms A(i) True True True False False Occasional
Vismianthus punctatus Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Peponium leucanthum (Gilg) Cogn. A(i) False True True False False Scarce
Zanthoxylum lindense (Engl.) Kokwaro A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Landolphia watsoniana Rombouts A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Vitellariopsis kirkii (Baker) Dubard A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Diospyros magogoana F.White A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Diospyros shimbaensis F.White A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Ormocarpum sennoides DC. subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B.Gillett A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Strychnos xylophylla Gilg A(i) False True True False False Scarce
Xylia africana Harms A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Rothmannia macrosiphon (K.Schum. ex Engl.) Bridson A(i) False True True False False Scarce

Hexalobus mossambicensis N.Robson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Monanthotaxis suffruticosa P.H.Hoekstra

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Monanthotaxis trichantha (Diels) Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Xylopia lukei D.M.Johnson & Goyder

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Crossopetalum mossambicense I.Darbysh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Salacia orientalis N.Robson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Garcinia acutifolia N.Robson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Combretum lindense Exell & Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Baphia macrocalyx Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Berlinia orientalis Brenan

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Millettia makondensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Clerodendrum lutambense Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Premna hans-joachimii Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Premna tanganyikensis Moldenke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Vitex carvalhi Gürke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Vitex franceseana I.Darbysh. & Goyder

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Casearia rovumensis I.Darbysh. & J.E.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Convolvulus goyderi J.R.I.Wood

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Grewia limae Wild

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Memecylon torrei A.Fern. & R.Fern.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Ochna dolicharthros F.M.Crawford & I.Darbysh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Chassalia colorata J.E.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Coffea schliebenii Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Didymosalpinx callianthus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Leptactina papyrophloea Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Oxyanthus biflorus J.E.Burrows & S.M.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Oxyanthus strigosus Bridson & J.E.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Psydrax micans (Bullock) Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Tricalysia schliebenii Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Tricalysia semidecidua Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Vangueria domatiosa J.E.Burrows

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Vepris allenii I.Verd.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Pyrostria makovui K.W.Matheka, Goyder & I.Darbysh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Erianthemum lindense (Sprague) Danser

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Gonatopus petiolulatus (Peter) Bogner

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Guibourtia schliebenii (Harms) J.Leonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Millettia impressa Harms subsp. goetzeana (Harms) J.B.Gillett

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Pavetta macrosepala Hiern var. macrosepala

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Platysepalum inopinatum Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Sterculia schliebenii Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Vismia pauciflora Milne-Redh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Mildbraedia carpinifolia (Pax) Hutch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Acacia latistipulata Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Vismianthus punctatus Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Peponium leucanthum (Gilg) Cogn.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Zanthoxylum lindense (Engl.) Kokwaro

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Landolphia watsoniana Rombouts

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Vitellariopsis kirkii (Baker) Dubard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Diospyros magogoana F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Diospyros shimbaensis F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Ormocarpum sennoides DC. subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B.Gillett

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Strychnos xylophylla Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Xylia africana Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Rothmannia macrosiphon (K.Schum. ex Engl.) Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
Rovuma Coastal Dry Forest C(iii) False True True

Rovuma Coastal Dry Forest

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest No value Major
Savanna - Moist Savanna No value Major
Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland No value Major
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland No value Major
Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha] No value Major
Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land No value Minor
Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Savanna - Moist Savanna

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Agriculture (arable) No value Minor
Forestry No value Minor

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Forestry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Energy production & mining - Oil & gas drilling Low Past, not likely to return
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming High Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants Low Ongoing - increasing
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Low Ongoing - increasing

Energy production & mining - Oil & gas drilling

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Past, not likely to return

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Gathering terrestrial plants

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Palma Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area encompasses IPA No value

Palma

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Darbyshire, I., Timberlake, J., Osborne, J., Rokni, S., Matimele, H., Langa, C., Datizua, C., de Sousa, C., Alves, T., Massingue, A., Hadj-Hammou, J., Dhanda, S., Shah, T. & Wursten, B., 2019

The endemic plants of Mozambique: diversity and conservation status

PhytoKeys, Vol 136, page(s) 45-96 Available online

Burrows, J., Burrows, S., Lötter, M. & Schmidt, E., 2018

Trees and Shrubs Mozambique

Timberlake, J., Goyder, D., Crawford, F. & Pascal, O., 2010

Coastal Dry Forests in Cabo Delgado Province, Northern Mozambique: Botany and Conservation.

Burrows, J.E. & Timberlake, J.R., 2011

Mozambique’s centres of endemism, with special reference to the Rovuma Centre of Endemism of NE Mozambique and SE Tanzania.

South African Journal of Botany, Vol 77, page(s) 518

Timberlake, J., Goyder, D., Crawford, F., Burrows, J.E., Clarke, G.P., Luke, Q., Matimele, H., Müller, T., Pascal, O., de Sousa, C. & Alves T., 2011

Coastal dry forests in northern Mozambique.

Plant Ecology and Evolution, Vol 144, page(s) 126-137

Clarke, G.P., 2011

Observations on the vegetation and ecology of Palma and Nangade Districts, Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique.

Available online

CEPF, 2020

Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund. Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa.

Available online

Darbyshire, I., Goyder, D.J., Wood, J.R.I., Banza, A. & Burrows, J.E., 2020

Further new species and records from the coastal dry forests and woodlands of the Rovuma Centre of Endemism.

Plant Ecology and Evolution, Vol 153, page(s) 427–445

Recommended citation

Iain Darbyshire (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Lower Rovuma Escarpment (Mozambique). https://tipas.kew.org/site/lower-rovuma-escarpment-2/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)