Lobéké National Park

CMNTIPA049
Lobéké National Park

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: East (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 2.29740 N, 15.85970 E

Area: 2164km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Lobeké National Park qualifies under IPA criterion A(i) due to important populations of globally threatened species such as Okoubaka aubrevillei (EN), Beilschmiedia congolana (EN) and Afraegle asso (EN). However, it may have greater significance for its habitat types under criterion C, or useful species under criterion B(iii), when these aspects are more fully assessed. Although some evidence exists (Yuh et al., 2019, 2020) of the superior habitat within the National Park compared to the surrounding area, potentially further justifying the area as an IPA, it is as part of a much larger, intact landscape that it has most value.

Site description

Cameroon's Lobéké National Park is one of several protected areas in an extensively forested part of Central Africa where the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo meet. This largely intact forest zone is of major importance for remaining megafaunal populations. The predominantly semi-deciduous (or semi-evergreen) forest habitat has been more sparsely surveyed but is probably less rich in plant species or endemics than the littoral or submontane forests of other parts of Cameroon. However, it is unrivalled in Cameroon in extent and lack of disturbance. Lobéké National Park is one part that has been more thoroughly surveyed, although the report of Harris (1999), relied upon here, does not cover quite the same area as the National Park now designated. Because there is limited data for this region, the site is perhaps best seen as an example of a much larger habitat rather than as a site that is of greater botanical significance than the surrounding forest and other nearby protected areas such as Boumba Bek.

Botanical significance

Over 760 species of vascular plant have been recorded, of which over 350 are trees (Harris, 1999). Several of these are globally threatened or have a restricted range. Okoubaka aubrevillei (EN) is a widespread but very rare and highly threatened semi-parasitic tree with great cultural significance. It is threatened by unsustainable harvesting of its bark for traditional medicine although there is no scientific evidence of its value. Lobéké may represent one of the best sites in Cameroon and globally for its survival (Harris, 1999; Borokini et al., 2015). Beilschmiedia congolana (EN) is another species with a large range but very few (five) collections, and only known in Cameroon from Lobéké. Afraegle asso (EN) and Balsamocitrus camerunensis (DD but VU in Onana & Cheek, 2011) are other notable species for which Lobéké is an important site.
Several species reach the northern or western limit of their distribution in southern Cameroon and, although most are not globally rare or threatened, they are little known in Cameroon outside Lobéké. These include Irvingia smithii (LC), Isolona pilosa (VU), Bulbophyllum fayi (VU), Xylopia gilbertii (VU), Xylopia flamignii, Xylopia letestui, Colletoecema dewevrei, Strombosia nigropunctata, Millettia comosa, Macaranga saccifera and Buchnerodendron speciosum (Harris, 1999). Similarly, species such as Deinbollia laurentii (NT) and Manilkara pellegriniana are not globally threatened but rare in Cameroon because confined to seasonally flooded habitats (Harris, 1999). Should threats to this relatively undisturbed area continue to increase then some of these species could become globally or nationally threatened.
A large number of threatened timber species are recorded from the site. Pericopsis elata (EN) is a valuable timber tree, driven to virtual extinction in West Africa. It is apparently reproducing successfuly at Lobéké but is little recorded elsewhere in Cameroon (Harris, 1999). The site is likely to be one of the best national sites for other timber species, such as Antrocaryon micraster (VU) and Anopyxis klaineana (VU). Lobéké and surrounding forests may also represent some of the best sites in Cameroon or tropical Africa, for large, mature trees of species that are widely logged for timber, such as Triplochiton scleroxylon and Entandrophragma cylindricum, and which may be of particular importance for biodiversity, forest health and indigenous societies (Harris et al., 2021; Harris & Wortley, 2008).
As well as the predominant semi-deciduous forest on terra firma, Lobéké contains nationally important patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei mono-dominant forest and various types of inundated, riverine and swamp forest, particularly the "Bais" - saline, sedge-dominated forest clearings frequented by megafauna (Harris, 1999).

Habitat and geology

Lobeke has a four-season tropical monsoon climate (Koppen classification: Am). The main dry season is between December and February, followed by a wet season between March and early June, a short dry season in late June and July, and a second wet season from August to November. Peak precipitation is in October with 226 mm. An average of 1595 mm of rain is recorded per annum and the average temperature is 25.6 °C. Humidity varies little across the year around an average of 81%. Average high temperatures peak at 32 °C in March and April at the beginning of the first wet season and drop to 29 °C in July and August before the second rainy season. Average lows are consistent at 20-21 °C across all months (Weatherbase, 2022).
The site lies over the northern edge of the Congo craton, with metasedimentary pelites and quartzites prominent as well as sandstones and an igneous doloritic band in the southeastern part (BFGM, 2016). Soils are predominantly haplic ferralsols, with some gleyed soils and haplic acrisols (Yerima & Van Ranst, 2005). Harris (1999) reports a bright red, clayey, slippery soil, referred to as "Boma" by local Baka people who consider it fertile for bananas. It naturally supports forest rich in Triplochiton scleroxylon and Terminalia superba but other soil types on terra firma have a higher tree diversity.
The canopy in terra firma areas is typically around 40 m. It is usually rather open with a variable understory, sometimes of dense Marantaceae–Zingiberaceae thicket or a low, closed subcanopy at 6–8 m dominated by Ebenaceae and Annonaceae trees (Birdlife International, 2022). The forest has similarities with Dja National Park but is closest to that in neighbouring Dzangha-Sangha National Park in CAR (Harris, 1999; Harris, 2002). Based on evidence from Annonanceae, Lobéké may be more species-rich due to presence of Atlantic species at the limit of their range (Harris, 1999). It is predominantly semi-evergreen (or semi-deciduous) humid forest which Letouzey (1985) maps as three related types, “semi-caducifoliée à Sterculiaceae et Ulmaceae” (160), “forêts mixtes, semi-caducifoliées et forêts toujours vertes du Dja, avec prédominance d’éléments de forêts semi-caducifolées” (164), and “forêts mixtes, toujours vertes du Dja et forêts semi-caducifoliées avec prédominance d’éléments du Dja” (190). Harris (1999) was unable to detect consistent difference between these variations. More distinct are the patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei monodominant forest (Letouzey's type 189) which are uncommon in Cameroon. Also notable are the large, sedge-dominated forest clearings known locally as "Bais". These appear to occur mainly where the water table is high and the soil is rich in mineral salts, which attract animals that help deter woody vegetation (Harris, 1999: Birdlife International, 2022). Swamp forest (Letouzey's type 11), often dominated by Raphia laurentii and Phoenix reclinata, is also a major constituent, representing 10% according to Harris (1999) or 40% under the categorisation of Yuh et al. (2019). Seasonally inundated forest, Letouzey's type 195, occurs along the river Sangha, and is characterised by Guibourtia demeusei, Uapaca heudelotii and other specialist species, and apparently features a high density of vines (Gentry, 1991; Harris, 1999).

Conservation issues

Lobéké N.P. is part of the Sangha Trinational, a cross border conservation zone and, since 2012, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, encompassing three national parks across an area of 746,309 with an additional buffer zone of 1,787,950 ha (IUCN 2012). The complex is managed by WWF, GIZ and WCS Cameroon, and funded by COMIFAC. The Sangha Trinational and buffer zone are in turn part of a much larger Sangha Trinational Landscape (4,393,600 ha), which encompasses the entire corner of Cameroon east of the Yokadouma-Salapoumbé-Mouloundou P4 road. West of this road corridor lies a second enormous (141,000 km) trinational area, the Dja-Odzala-Minkébé (TRIDOM) Landscape, involving cooperation between the governments of Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo (CBFP, 2006).
Harris (1999) indicated that impacts on the forest were low but could change rapidly, particularly through anticipiated timber extraction and accompanying migration of workers. According to UNESCO (2021) the forest is still well preserved, with an annual rate of vegetation loss of 0.03%. Yuh et al. (2019) reported a 1.44% reduction in dense forest and a slight increase in swampy forest for the National Park in the period 2001-2014. They deduced that 95% of the area has never been logged, although it is unclear if they consider pre-2001 logging, since Harris (1999) reports some areas as having been logged 2 or 3 times. Timber extraction does take place (Harris, 1999) and the surrounding forest management units, although legally certified and showing low levels of forest change (Yuh et al., 2019), do not promote biodiversity preservation (UNESCO, 2021). The remaining unlogged, old growth areas with giant trees are vulnerable and a powerful lure. Various projects in the wider area are likely to increase pressure by attracting migrant workers and increasing access, including the Chollet dam project at Molondou, the Mballam iron ore mining project and associated railway line, a proposed road through the National Park along the Sangha and a projected Ouesso-Bangui-Ndjamena road (PIDA, 2019; Mongabay, 2021). Mining exploration permits were issued for the southern buffer zone (MINFOF & WRI, 2021) but UNESCO (2021) report that these have not been renewed. Artisanal mining for diamonds and gold are a cause of concern within the park and also attract people to the area (UNESCO, 2021).
Yuh et al. (2019; 2020) reported some decline in Gorilla and Chimpanzee nest encounters but concluded that the site was extensively used by both species still. While Gorillas also made much use of the neighbouring FMUs, Chimpanzees were more restricted to forest within the National Park, apparently indicating the better-quality forest at the site. Poaching remains a major problem in the area with potentially huge but largely unknown impacts on the regeneration of plant species and structure of the forest should key animal dispersers such as forest elephants continue to slide towards extinction.
Treatment of Baka peoples in this region have raised concerns about the implementation of National Parks and efforts to preserve intact forests. Hunting and gathering rights were granted within a restricted part of the N.P. under a specific agreement with the Baka, as an exception to typical National Park laws (Usongo & Nkanje, 2004). However, concerns have been raised that Baka are marginalised and losing out to other stakeholders, including sport hunting operations (Nelson, 2003). Rights and participation of indigenous groups in the conservation and management of the site have been reaffirmed by UNESCO and should be seen as fundamental and complementary to preventing forest degradation by an influx of miners, loggers, hunters and farmers.

Ecosystem services

The forest holds important populations of many timber species (Harris, 1999), while local communities rely on the forest for a wide variety of non-timber products for trade or household consumption. Forest products contributed 44% of household income across five studied villages (Tieguhong & Nkamgnia, 2012). The forest also has cultural significance. For example, sacred sites are used by the Baka for pilgrimages and Jengi initiation ceremonies during forest festivals (Usongo & Nzooh, 2010).
The site is of great importance as a habitat for various large and threatened fauna, with some of the highest densities in the world for rainforest large mammals, which include Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Forest Elephants (Harris, 1999; Yuh et al., 2019). Elephant populations were reported to be relatively stable in the National Park itself but declining in the wider area and over the long term due to poaching (WWF, 2019). A national military response was reported in December 2021 after a number of elephants were killed by poachers in the area (Kindzeka, 2021). Crop damage by elephants and subsequent conflicts with villagers are also a problem. The site is an IBA and KBA with 170 avian species recorded, including Bradypterus grandis (NT) and Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus), which suffers very heavy poaching within the site (Birdlife International, 2022).
The National Park is estimated to have a total above and below ground carbon stock of >55 Megatonnes (DOPA, 2021).
There is high ecotourist potential, and commercial hunting is already established, but the isolation which is essential to the site's value will also tend to limit tourism.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

David Harris, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Okoubaka aubrevillei Pellegr. & Normand A(i) False False True False True
Afraegle asso Engl. A(i) True True True False True
Beilschmiedia congolana Robyns & R.Wilczek A(i) True True True False False
Pericopsis elata (Harms) Meeuwen A(i) False True True False True
Marantochloa mildbraedii Koechlin A(i) False True True False False
Autranella congolensis (De Wild.) A.Chev. A(i) False True True False False
Bulbophyllum fayi J.J.Verm. A(i) True True True False False
Isolona pilosa Diels A(i) True True True False False
Garcinia kola Heckel A(i) False False False False True
Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild. & T.Durand) Merrill A(i) False False False False True
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Xylopia gilbertii Boutique A(i) True True True False False
Nesogordonia papaverifera (A.Chev.) Capuron ex N.Hallé A(i) False False True False True
Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. A(i) False False True False True
Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr. A(i) False False False False False
Diospyros crassiflora Hiern A(i) False False True False True
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) False False False False True
Entandrophragma candollei Harms A(i) False False False False True
Pterygota bequaertii De Wild. A(i) False False False False True
Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin A(i) False False True False True
Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. A(i) False False False False True
Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague A(i) False False False False True
Drypetes molunduana Pax & K.Hoffm. A(i) False False False False False
Fernandoa ferdinandi (Welw.) Milne-Redh. A(i) True True True False False
Pararistolochia ceropegioides (S.Moore) Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) False True True False False
Agelanthus dichrous (Danser) Polhill & Wiens A(i) False True True False False
Cola brevipes Malvaceae A(i) True True True False False
Leplaea thompsonii (Sprague & Hutch.) E.J.M.Koenen & J.J.de Wilde A(i) False False True False False
Millettia laurentii de Wild. A(i) False False True False False
Ochna calodendron Gilg & Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False

Okoubaka aubrevillei Pellegr. & Normand

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Afraegle asso Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Beilschmiedia congolana Robyns & R.Wilczek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pericopsis elata (Harms) Meeuwen

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Marantochloa mildbraedii Koechlin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Autranella congolensis (De Wild.) A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum fayi J.J.Verm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Isolona pilosa Diels

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia kola Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild. & T.Durand) Merrill

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Xylopia gilbertii Boutique

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Nesogordonia papaverifera (A.Chev.) Capuron ex N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diospyros crassiflora Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma candollei Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Pterygota bequaertii De Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Drypetes molunduana Pax & K.Hoffm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Fernandoa ferdinandi (Welw.) Milne-Redh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pararistolochia ceropegioides (S.Moore) Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Agelanthus dichrous (Danser) Polhill & Wiens

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola brevipes Malvaceae

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leplaea thompsonii (Sprague & Hutch.) E.J.M.Koenen & J.J.de Wilde

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Millettia laurentii de Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ochna calodendron Gilg & Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest 57 Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 41 Major
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland 1 Major
Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls] No value

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest

Percent coverage:
57
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
41
Importance:
Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland

Percent coverage:
1
Importance:
Major

Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation 100
Harvesting of wild resources 100

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals High Ongoing - increasing
Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads High Future - planned activity
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Medium Future - inferred threat
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying Medium Future - inferred threat
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting Medium Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads

Severity:
High
Timing:
Future - planned activity

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Future - inferred threat

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Future - inferred threat

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (CAF) National Park protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA No value
Lobeké National Park National Park protected/conservation area matches IPA No value
Sangha Trinational UNESCO World Heritage Site protected/conservation area encompasses IPA No value
Sangha Trinational Trans-Frontier Conservation Area (core zone) protected/conservation area encompasses IPA No value

Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (CAF)

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Lobeké National Park

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Sangha Trinational

Protected area type:
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Sangha Trinational

Protected area type:
Trans-Frontier Conservation Area (core zone)
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Protected Area management plan in place Management Plan not seen but assumed to exist under provision of UNESCO status. No value No value

Protected Area management plan in place

Management Plan not seen but assumed to exist under provision of UNESCO status.
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Onana J.-M. & Cheek M., 2011

Red Data Book of the flowering plants of Cameroon

Yerima, B. & Van Ranst, E., 2005

Major Soil Classification Systems Used in the Tropics: Soils of Cameroon

MINFOF (Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife) & WRI (World Resources Instiute), 2021

Forest Atlas of Cameroon

Available online

CBFP (Congo Basin Forest Partnership), 2006

The forests of the Congo Basin: State of the Forest 2006

Available online

Harris, D., 1999

Lobéké: Botanical Inventory. Unpublished report for WWF Cameroon

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Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy, David Harris (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Lobéké National Park (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/lobeke-national-park/ (Accessed on 27/05/2024)