Eastern Mt Cameroon

Etinde and Woteva Community Forests

CMNTIPA041
Eastern Mt Cameroon

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.14000 N, 9.17000 E

Area: 178km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The site supports globally or nationally significant populations of as many as 60 globally threatened taxa (57 species), thereby qualifying as an IPA under criterion A(i).

Site description

On the eastern flanks of Mt Cameroon the existing national park boundary is mostly above 1400 m and runs as high as 2500 m in places, excluding most of the mid-lower slopes above Buea and Likombe. Together with the lower eastern and southern slopes of Mt Etinde, these degraded and threatened forests have recorded many threatened plant taxa and are here proposed as an important plant area. The area includes the Etinde and Woteva community forests as well as a strip connecting these and extending below the former to the southeast of Boando where numerous cinder cones retain some forest. In the northeast, a further section is included between the national park and the northeast boundary of the Woteva forest. The site lies in Fako division of Southwest Region, and straddles Muyaka and Buea subdivisions.

Botanical significance

Mount Cameroon has been an important collecting site for botanists since the nineteenth century, and many expeditions have been made from the towns of Buea and Limbe on the eastern side of the mountain. These have resulted in numerous rare or range-restricted species being recorded from this area (Cable & Cheek, 1998). Some of these are endemic to Mt Cameroon such as Angraecopsis cryptantha (VU), only recorded from this site at 2000 m, and Liparis kamerunensis (CR) which is endemic to upper Mt Cameroon, most recently collected from grassland and cloud forest within this site at c. 2000 m (the type specimen may have been recorded also from this site or perhaps within the National Park). Other important taxa occur at additional mountain sites along the Cameroon Volcanic Line, such as Habenaria thomana (VU), Palisota preussiana (VU) and Tiliacora lehmbachii (EN) all otherwise known only from Mt Kupe.
Because of the expansion of Buea, confirmation is needed of the continued presence of some taxa. Disperis kamerunensis (CR) may have been lost from the Buea collection site but is included here since the only other record is close to the border of this TIPA within the national park. Coleus dissitiflorus (CR) has only been recorded from near Buea over 130 years ago and may not survive.
The lower slopes of Mt Etinde and cinder cones around Boando are included within this site and are important for many taxa, such as Ardisia etindensis (CR), a lowland species otherwise only recorded near Eseka, and Cola metallica (CR).

Habitat and geology

Although the southwestern side of Mt Cameroon is one of the wettest places in the world, the eastern slopes of Mt Cameroon are drier due to the rain shadow effect: at Molyko, a suburb of Buea below the proposed boundary of this IPA at 620 m, annual mean precipitation is 2-3 m compared to nearly 10 m at Debundscha (Fraser et al., 1998). There is a seasonal climate with >100 mm precipiation from April to November (peaking in August), and <50 mm in December, January and February as the inter-tropical convergence zone moves south and the northerly Harmattan wind prevails bringing dry dusty air from the Sahara (Fraser et al., 1998, data for 1984-1993). At the south of the site precipitation is higher, with nearly 5 m a year on average at Mokundange on the coast below Mt Etinde, and >1 m mean for July and August when there is rain nearly every day.
Maximum and minimum monthly temperatures vary little around means of 24.4 and 19.1 °C respectively, although maxima drop slightly in the rainy season (data for Tole, south of Buea, at c. 630 m, years 1970-76 & 1983-1993).
Mt Cameroon is the highest mountain in West or Central Africa, 1000 m higher than Mt Oku further north along the Cameroon Volcanic Line. It is an active strato-volcano of mainly alkali basalt and basanite overlying uplifted Cretacious to Quaternary sediments and Precambrian metamorphic basement rocks (Dereulle et al, 1987; Mathieu et al., 2011). While surface lavas are variously interpreted as ancient to recent (Ateba, 2000; Fitton, 1983), all dated samples are <3 Ma (Marzoli et al., 2000; Wembenyui et al. 2020). There have been several historical eruptions but only two have left lava fields within the proposed IPA, the 1959 eruption on the northeastern flank which descended towards Ekona Mbengue, and the 2000 eruption south of the summit which descended the southeastern side to c.2000 m (Njome et al., 2008; Ateba et al., 2009; Geiger et al., 2016). The nephelinitic lavas of Mt Etinde are distinct and unusual but not necessarily more ancient as was once thought (Nkoumbou et al, 1995; Ntoumbe et al., 2016). Landslides and block falls are common (Thierry et al., 2008) and a large fan of lahars is mapped north of Buea by Ataba et al. (2009). Many cinder cones are also found in the southern part of the site around Boando.
With the exception of recent flows and the Etinde lavas, the soils of Mt Cameroon are mostly highly fertile and targeted by farmers (Courade, 1974). Because of rejuvination by ash fall on the upper slopes, soil fertility does not fall with increasing altitude as on other tropical mountains due to leaching; organic content is positively correlated with altitude due to reduced temperature (lapse rate of 0.6 degrees C per 100 m; Proctor et al., 2007). According to Payton (1993) the andisols of the eastern slopes are much deeper and more fertile than the older, leached lowland soils below 600 m on the south and western sides.
Several different vegetation types have been distinguished within the national park area (Letouzey 1968, 1981; Thomas & Cheek, 1992; Maley & Brenac 1998; Cable & Cheek, 1999). The site proposed here includes mainly montane forest and submontane (discontinuous canopy) forest, and montane grassland and scrub. The montane forest contains trees of considerable size for the altitude (particularly Schefflera and Syzygium spp.), probably explained by the comparatively fertile, well-drained soils and high organic content (Payton et al., 1993).
Forest gives way to grasland between 2000 and 2500 m but the level of the tree line is heavily impacted by fire (natural and anthropogenic) and volcanic eruptions (Proctor et al., 2007).

Conservation issues

The site is under pressure from farming and logging related to the expansion of communities around Buea (KBA Partnership, 2020). Agro-plantations attract migrant workers, increasing the demand for land and fuelwood (MINFOF, 2014). Two community forests are included within the site boundary, Etinde and Woteva. While much heralded for integrating local people with conservation and sustainable development, the success of community forests in Cameroon has been mixed (Ngalim & Terence, 2016, Minang et al., 2019). At nearby Bimbia-Bonadikombo, forest loss has continued without apparent benefit to the community as a whole (Nkemenyi, 2016; Adeyanju, 2017). There is some indication that Woteva has been more successful in benefitting the community and there have been some reforestation efforts at Etinde and Woteva (Ngang et al., 2018; Piabuo, 2018; Adeline, 2015).
The treeline around 2000-2500 m is largely shaped by volcanic disruption and fire, including anthropogenic burning, rather than climate (Proctor et al., 2007). Fire, often started by hunters, is a major threat to the montane and submonane forests, and montane grassland, particularly because of the free-draining, drought-prone soils with few permanent rivers or springs (Payton 1993; IBA Partnership, 2020). This could also render them particularly vulnerable to climate change reducing precipitation and cloud cover.

Ecosystem services

The main tourist routes to the summit of Mt Cameroon run up through these eastern slopes, bringing business to the communities below. Tourist value is partly dependent on the forest and wildlife it supports but supplemented by volcanic landmarks and nearby historical sites. The proposed IPA is part of an IBA, KBA and AZE site, with a rich fauna including 210 bird species (of which two are strictly endemic, Zosterops melanocephalus, VU, and Pternistis camerunensis, EN); two endemic shrews (Crocidura eisentrauti, VU, and Sylvisorex morio, EN) and two endemic rodents (Otomys burtoni, EN, and Lophuromys roseveari). It is one of very few sites in western Cameroon with remaining forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis, CR, estimated at 130 individuals, MINFOF, 2014) and is also important for Allochrocebus preussi (EN).
The slopes are prone to landslides. Protection of forest vegetation is likely to mitigate this risk and that of flash flooding (Payton, 1993; Thierry et al., 2008), while regulating fresh water supply.
The forest supplies an array of timber and non-timber forest products, including many medicines that are important in local villages where commercial medicines are often unaffordable (Focho et al., 2010; Fongod et al., 2013).

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Neoschumannia kamerunensis Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Chassalia laikomensis Cheek A(i), A(iii) False False False False False
Liparis kamerunensis Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Ardisia etindensis Taton A(i) True True True False False
Disperis kamerunensis Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev. A(i) True False True False False
Aframomum A(i) True True True False False
Dactyladenia mannii (Oliv.) Prance & F.White A(i) True True True False False
Cola praecuta Brenan & Keay A(i) True False True False False
Andropogon pusillus Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Ormocarpum klainei Tisser. A(i) True True True False False
Tiliacora lehmbachii Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Peperomia kamerunana C.D.C A(i) True False True False False
Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Habenaria batesii la Croix A(i) True True True False False
Impatiens etindensis Cheek & Eb.Fisch. A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham A(i) True False True False False
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) False False False False True
Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. A(i) False False False False True
Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr. A(i) True True True False False
Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr. A(i) False False False False False
Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl. A(i) True False True False False
Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé A(i) False False True False False
Palisota preussiana K.Schum. ex C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br. A(i) True False False False False
Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv. A(i) False True True False False
Angraecopsis cryptantha P.J.Cribb A(i) True True True True False
Begonia oxyanthera Warb. A(i) True False True False False
Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv. A(i) True True True False False
Aneilema silvaticum Brenan A(i) True True True False False
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Acanthopale decempedalis C.B.Clarke A(i) True False False False False
Bulbophyllum bifarium Hook.f. A(i) True True True False False
Habenaria thomana Rchb.f. A(i) True True True False False
Calochone acuminata Keay A(i) True True True False False
Ixora foliosa Hiern A(i) True False False False False
Allophylus bullatus Radlk. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Dorstenia prorepens Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Schefflera hierniana Harms A(i) True True True False False
Oxyanthus montanus Sonké A(i) True True True False False
Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. angustifolia (Summerh.) Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl. A(i) True False False False False
Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f. A(i) True False True False False
Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh. A(i) False False True False False
Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr. A(i) False False True False False
Polystachya superposita Rchb.f. A(i) True True True False False
Dicliptera alternans Lindau A(i) False True True False False
Pseuderanthemum dispermum Milne-Redh. A(i) True True True False False
Sclerochiton preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke A(i) True True True False False
Tiliacora lehmbachii Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Stenandrium thomense (Milne-Redh.) Vollesen A(i) True True True False False
Coleus dissitiflorus Gürke A(i) True True True True False
Cola metallica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Dactyladenia gilletii (De Wild.) Prance & F.White A(i) False True True False False
Psychotria asterogramma O.Lachenaud A(i) True True True False False
Aframomum plicatum D.J.Harris & Wortley A(i) True True True False False
Angraecum sanfordii P.J.Cribb & B.J.Pollard A(i) True True True False False
Deinbollia pycnophylla Gilg ex Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Hymenocoleus glaber Robbr. A(i) True True True False False
Ixora delicatula Keay A(i) True True True False False
Ixora delicatula Keay A(i) True True True False False
Begonia rubromarginata Gilg A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea urbaniana Wernham A(iv) True True True False False

Neoschumannia kamerunensis Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chassalia laikomensis Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Liparis kamerunensis Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ardisia etindensis Taton

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Disperis kamerunensis Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dactyladenia mannii (Oliv.) Prance & F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola praecuta Brenan & Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Andropogon pusillus Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ormocarpum klainei Tisser.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tiliacora lehmbachii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Peperomia kamerunana C.D.C

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria batesii la Croix

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens etindensis Cheek & Eb.Fisch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Uvariodendron giganteum (Engl.) R.E.Fr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia volubilis Loes. & H.J.P.Winkl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leeuwenbergia letestui Letouzey & N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Palisota preussiana K.Schum. ex C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Angraecopsis cryptantha P.J.Cribb

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia oxyanthera Warb.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oncoba lophocarpa Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aneilema silvaticum Brenan

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Acanthopale decempedalis C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum bifarium Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria thomana Rchb.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calochone acuminata Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ixora foliosa Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allophylus bullatus Radlk.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dorstenia prorepens Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Schefflera hierniana Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Oxyanthus montanus Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. angustifolia (Summerh.) Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Panicum acrotrichum Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globimetula oreophila (Oliv.) Tiegh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya superposita Rchb.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dicliptera alternans Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseuderanthemum dispermum Milne-Redh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sclerochiton preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tiliacora lehmbachii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Stenandrium thomense (Milne-Redh.) Vollesen

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coleus dissitiflorus Gürke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola metallica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dactyladenia gilletii (De Wild.) Prance & F.White

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria asterogramma O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aframomum plicatum D.J.Harris & Wortley

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Angraecum sanfordii P.J.Cribb & B.J.Pollard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Deinbollia pycnophylla Gilg ex Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenocoleus glaber Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ixora delicatula Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ixora delicatula Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Begonia rubromarginata Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea urbaniana Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest 60 Major
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland 20 Major
Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland 20 Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
60
Importance:
Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Percent coverage:
20
Importance:
Major

Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland

Percent coverage:
20
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Medium Future - inferred threat
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture High Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting High Ongoing - trend unknown
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity High Ongoing - trend unknown

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Future - inferred threat

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon National Park National Park protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA No value
Etinde Community Forest; Woteva Community forest Forest Reserve (production) IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 38

Mount Cameroon National Park

Protected area type:
National Park
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area is adjacent to IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Etinde Community Forest; Woteva Community forest

Protected area type:
Forest Reserve (production)
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
38

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Important Bird Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 135
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 135
Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge Alliance for Zero Extinction Site protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 135

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
135

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
135

Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge

Protected area:
Alliance for Zero Extinction Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
135

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Site management plan in place A management plan for the neighbouring National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist No value No value

Site management plan in place

A management plan for the neighbouring National Park succeeding that expiring in 2019 has not been seen but is likely to exist
Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

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Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Eastern Mount Cameroon (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/likombe-community-forest/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)