Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve

UGATIPA9
Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve

Country: Uganda

Administrative region: Western (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 0.40806 S, 30.05998 E

Area: 140.6km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Kalinzu CFR meets sub-criterion A(i) of the IPA criteria, with seven Endangered and seven Vulnerable taxa known from this site. [Any additional info about how it compares to other sites re: richness in threatened species/ C(iii) info]

Site description

Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve is located across Bushneyi, Rubrizi and Mitooma Districts of Western Region along the Albertine Rift escarpment, 20 km east of Lake Edward. This site occupies a landscape of undulating hills dominated by mid-elevation, deciduous forest and is an important conservation corridor, connecting the Queen Elizabeth National Park complex of protected areas to the west with Kasyoha-Kitomi in the east. This site was visited in 2023 as part of Uganda TIPAs fieldwork.

Botanical significance

Kasyoha-Kitomi is an important site for national and Albertine Rift endemics, many of which are threatened. Of great importance is Diospyros katendei, a Critically Endangered tree that is endemic to Kasyoha-Kitomi and is only known from a single individual. Searches have been undertaken to locate this species in recent years but there have been no further individuals found and, as a Diospyros species, it is highly likely to have been targeted for its high-quality timber (IUCN SSC East African Plants Red List Authority 2013). Another threatened tree species Ficus katendei (EN), similarly named after the Ugandan botanist Anthony Katende, may have also been extirpated from this site. While this species is found at one other site, Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park, the only known individual at Kasyoha-Kitomi was felled to build a bridge (Gereau et al., In prep.). However, there are large areas of Kasyoha-Kitomi that have yet to be search for either of these species and, therefore, it is possible that they are still extant at this site. Further research is urgently needed, particularly given the threats to this site, to understand whether there is an opportunity to conserve D. katendei and F. katendei here; particularly for the former of the two which may be saved from extinction through conservation at Kasyoha-Kitomi.
This IPA is also of great conservation importance for several other threatened species. Kasyoha-Kitomi is, for instance, the only site nationally from which Aframomum spiroligulatum is known and one of only two protected areas globally in which this species occurs. In addition, another Endangered species Uvariodendron magnificum, was described as a “dominant understorey tree” when collected in 1969 (Synott #540) and has been collected more recently in 2017. This species is endemic to Uganda and Kasyoha-Kitomi likely represents the most important site for this species nationally. This IPA is also an important site for Brachystephanus roseus, an Albertine Rift endemics known from only two other protected areas in Uganda.
Six Vulnerable species are known from this IPA. One of these species, Musanga leo-errarae, was collected during 2023 fieldwork by the Uganda TIPAs team at this site. This tree is an Albertine Rift endemic and occurs occasionally in recently opened gaps in the canopy at Kasyoha-Kitomi. Another Vulnerable species recorded on fieldwork is Rinorea tshingandaensis, this species was uncommon at this site and globally only known from Uganda and eastern D.R. Congo (Kalema & Beentje, 2012). Two other Vulnerable species, Crotalaria adenocarpoides and Vernonia parapetersii, were collected in 1970 on Lubare Ridge in rocky, grassland habitats (Lye #5473, 5480). In recent decades, large areas of this grassland have been replaced by forest plantation and some small-scale agriculture (Google Earth 2023). Some small areas of Lubare Ridge continue to support grassland and so it is of great importance that further surveys are undertaken to ascertain whether these grassland species persist within this IPA.
Vulnerable timber tree Mimusops bagshawei was likely observed on fieldwork in 2023 for the Uganda TIPAs project, although it was not possible to collect leaf or fertile material to confirm this determination. This fieldwork did, however, find a new record of Massularia acuminata for both Uganda and the Flora of Tropical East Africa region. There are likely several more plant species that are of botanical significance at this site. Further research is needed, particularly in harder to access sections, to fully categorise its biodiversity importance.
Rytigynia bagshawei var. lebrunii was collected during fieldwork by the Uganda TIPAs project in 2024. This species was previously only known from the Central Africa floral region (D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Burundi), although this species was collected at Itwara during the same fieldwork. Further surveying will likely reveal additional interesting species from this site.

Habitat and geology

Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve lies on the edge of the Albertine Escarpment and, with neighboring Maramagambo, occupies a continuous forest gradient across over 900 m in altitude. This is of great significance for conservation of the forest species as the ecosystem likely has some resilience against climatic changes. Kasunju Hill represents the highest point in the reserve and a collection of the Endangered species Pavetta ankolensis was made on this hill. The forest overall is underlain by gneisses and schists, with some prominent quartzite ridges, with deep red loamy soils (Howard 1991; Howard, Davenport & Baltzer 1996).

Kalinzu CFR is categorised as median altitude moist evergreen forest. Parts of the reserve are dominated by Parinari excelsa while areas of mixed forest consist of species such as Drypetes spp., Strombosia scheffleri and Funtumia africana (Hashimoto & Tashiro 1999). The Vulnerable tree species Musanga leo-errerae is a common pioneer at this site (Kalema & Hamilton 2020) and its presence defines a distinct type of secondary forest at the site, described by Hashimoto & Tashiro (1999) as “Musanga-dominated secondary forest”, although such areas are mixed in nature with other species such as F. africana similarly abundant.

Conservation issues

The site has previously been targeted by pitsawing, and some illegal logging continues today (CUPTD Workshop 2023; Lwanga 1996). For instance, the area designated as a Nature Reserve within Kalinzu, west of Kasunju Hill, has previously been heavily exploited for timber (Howard 1991). To address this issue, a collaborative forest management group, the Ndangara and Nyakiyanja Parishes Tutungukye Group, was established at Kalinzu following an initiative led by the National Forest Authority and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF 2016). The group has been designated a 350 ha area of land within the north of the forest reserve for planting trees, beekeeping and plots for food cultivation. Alongside this they are also able to collect non-timber forest products from part of the forest (WWF 2014). In turn, the CFM group has agreed not to extract timber or poach animals elsewhere in the forest and report others coming to the reserve to undertake illegal activities. Further support for tree planting in communities surrounding Kalinzu CFR, in the parishes of Rubirizi and Mitooma, has been delivered through the Trees for Global Benefits initative, led by Ecotrust and Plan Vivo. The initiative is a carbon offsetting scheme which links carbon markets to rural livelihoods through planting of native tree species, including threatened species, and small-scale use of species for provision of fuel and timber to reduce pressure on protected areas such as Kalinzu (ECOTRUST 2020).

Kalinzu also benefits from a significant chimpanzee population, the conservation of which helps support the protection of the entire forest ecosystem. The site has been recognised as a Key Biodiversity Area due to the presence of this species (Plumptre et al. 2019).

Kalinzu Eco Lodge was under construction during the Uganda TIPAs visit to the site in 2023. The site was accompanied by a new access road of around 0.5 km. We observed the growth of invasive species such as Lantana camara and Solanum sp. growing on the newly created forest margins here. While the presence of an Eco Lodge may well provide sustainable livelihoods and offer greater security from threats such as logging and encroachment, care is needed to ensure that further disturbance to the ecosystem is limited.

Ecosystem services

Kalinzu supports a strong ecotourism sector, in part, due to the presence of chimpanzees although the site is also important for other faunal taxa, including two species of butterfly endemic to the site (WWF 2014). A new eco-lodge was under construction during our 2023 visit and elsewhere the site hosts a visitors’ centre, that helps to educate visitors on the conservation work undertaken at Kalinzu.

Modelling suggests that this site has high carbon stocks (Kasangaki et al. 2012), while given the position and size of this site on the edge of the Albertine escarpment, this site likely has an important role in stabilising soils and in water catchment.
The forest provides resources to local communities through the CFM plots, where smallholder crops and timber trees are grown as well as hosting apiaries, while parts of the forest are accessible for collection of firewood and medicinal plants (WWF 2014, 2016).

Site assessor(s)

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Brachystephanus roseus Champl. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Dasylepis eggelingii J.B.Gillett A(i) True True True False False Common
Globimetula kivuensis (Balle) Wiens & Polhill A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Tiliacora latifolia Troupin A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Kylicanthe bueae (Schltr.) Farminhão, Stévart & Droissart A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Polystachya hastata Summerh. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Polystachya laurentii De Wild. A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Polystachya nyanzensis Rendle A(i) True True False False False Unknown
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman A(i) False False True False True Occasional
Pavetta ankolensis Bridson A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Pavetta bagshawei S.Moore var. leucosphaera (Bremek.) Bridson A(i) True False False False False Unknown
Psychotria bagshawei E.M.A.Petit A(i) True True True False False Unknown
Zanthoxylum mildbraedii (Engl.) P.G.Waterman A(i) False True True False False Occasional
Mimusops bagshawei S.Moore A(i) False False True False False Unknown
Musanga leo-errerae Hauman & J.Léonard A(i) True True True False False Frequent
Polystachya meyeri P.J.Cribb & Podz. A(i) False True True False False Unknown
Brazzeia longipedicellata Verdc. A(i) False True True False False Unknown

Brachystephanus roseus Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Dasylepis eggelingii J.B.Gillett

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Common

Globimetula kivuensis (Balle) Wiens & Polhill

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Tiliacora latifolia Troupin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Kylicanthe bueae (Schltr.) Farminhão, Stévart & Droissart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Polystachya hastata Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Polystachya laurentii De Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Polystachya nyanzensis Rendle

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Pavetta ankolensis Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Pavetta bagshawei S.Moore var. leucosphaera (Bremek.) Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Psychotria bagshawei E.M.A.Petit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Zanthoxylum mildbraedii (Engl.) P.G.Waterman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Occasional

Mimusops bagshawei S.Moore

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Musanga leo-errerae Hauman & J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Polystachya meyeri P.J.Cribb & Podz.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Brazzeia longipedicellata Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Major
Artificial - Terrestrial - Plantations No value Minor
Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land No value Minor

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Artificial - Terrestrial - Plantations

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Artificial - Terrestrial - Arable Land

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation No value Major
Agriculture (arable) No value Minor
Tourism / Recreation No value Major
Forestry No value Minor
Harvesting of wild resources No value Minor

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Tourism / Recreation

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forestry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads Low Past, not likely to return
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Low Ongoing - stable
Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations Medium Ongoing - stable
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Low Ongoing - trend unknown
Human intrusions & disturbance - Recreational activities Unknown Ongoing - trend unknown

Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Past, not likely to return

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Human intrusions & disturbance - Recreational activities

Severity:
Unknown
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve Forest Reserve (conservation) protected/conservation area matches IPA 141

Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve

Protected area type:
Forest Reserve (conservation)
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
141

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Kalinzu Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area matches IPA 141

Kalinzu

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
141

Bibliography

Howard, P. C., 1991

Nature Conservation in Uganda’s Tropical Forest Reserves

Plumptre, A. J., Ayebare, S., Behangana, M., Forrest, T. G., Hatanga, P., Kabuye, C., Kirunda, B., Kityo, R., Mugabe, H., Namaganda, M., Nampindo, S., Nangendo, G., Nkuutu, D. N., Pomeroy, D., Tushabe, H. & Prinsloo, S., 2019

Conservation of vertebrates and plants in Uganda: Identifying Key Biodiversity Areas and other sites of national importance

Conservation Science and Practice, Vol 1, page(s) 1-12 Available online

Amani, C., Kalema, J., Nshutiyayesu, S. & Ntore, S., 2022

Mimusops bagshawei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T154342643A154388131

Available online

BGCI, 2023

Prunus africana – BGCI’s Tree Conservation Fund

Available online

Cheek, M. & Cable, S., 2000

Diaphananthe bueae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2000: e.T39573A10249034

Available online

CUPTD Workshop, 2023

Conservation of Uganda’s Plant and Tree Diversity Workshop, Makerere University, Kampala, 7-10 February 2023 [unpubl. communications]

De Block, P., Simo-Droissart, M. & Tack, W., 2021

Pavetta ankolensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T138003295A138015539

Available online

ECOTRUST, 2020

Trees for Global Benefits

Available online

Fischer, E., Beentje, H., Kabuye, C., Kalema, J., Kayombo, C., Luke, W. R. Q., Nshutiyayesu, S. & Ntore, S., 2019

Polystachya meyeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T16576679A16576682

Available online

Fischer, E., Beentje, H., Kabuye, C., Kalema, J., Luke, W. R. Q., Nshutiyayesu, S. & Ntore, S., 2019

Polystachya hastata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T16574989A16574993

Available online

Gereau, R., Ntore, S., Beentje, H. & Luke, W. R. Q., 2019

Polystachya laurentii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T111325303A111325319

Available online

Hashimoto, C. & Tashiro, Y., 1999

Vegetation of the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda: Ordination of Forest Types using Principal Component Analysis

African Study Monographs, Vol 20, page(s) 229–239

Howard, P., Davenport, T. & Baltzer, M., 1996

Kalinzu-Maramagambo Forest Reserve Biodiversity Report the Republic of Uganda Forest Department

Kalema, J. & Hamilton, A., 2020

Field Guide to the Forest Trees of Uganda

Lwanga, J., 1996

Trees and Shrubs

Kalinzu-Maramagambo Forest Reserve Biodiversity Report

WWF, 2014

Involving local communities in protecting the Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve pays off

Available online

WWF, 2016

Major turnaround as communities adjacent to Forest Reserve now championing restoration efforts

Available online

Kasangaki, A., Kanyamibwa, S., Burgess, N.D., Baghabati, N., Olwero, N., Anderson, M., Asasira, J., Bruhke, H., Hall, H. & Maritim, Z., 2012

Capturing the Benefits of Ecosystem Services to Guide Decision-Making in the Greater Virungas Landscape of the Albertine Rift Region

Recommended citation

(2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Kalinzu Central Forest Reserve (Uganda). https://tipas.kew.org/site/kalinzu-central-forest-reserve/ (Accessed on 27/05/2024)