Grandes Chutes Classified Forest

GUITIPA005
Grandes Chutes Classified Forest

Country: Guinea

Administrative region: Kindia (Prefecture)

Central co-ordinates: 9.90722 N, 13.11944 W

Area: 160km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species, B(i)Site contains a high number of species within defined habitat or vegetation types, C(iii)Site contains nationally threatened or restricted habitat or vegetation types, AND/OR habitats that have severely declined in extent nationally

IPA assessment rationale

This is the only known global site for four species of plant, such as Scleria guineensis, a critically endangered endemic species to Guinea and a new species to science of Coleus. Grandes Chutes falls is the only known global site for the Podostemaceae species, Inversodicraea pygmaea and several other species of Podostemaceae; they may now be extinct due to the construction of a dam for hydro-electric power. It also has a population of Raphionacme caerulea (EN). The seepage areas are rich in carnivorous plant species including the threatened species Utricularia pobeguinii (EN) and Utricularia macrocheilos (VU). The area is under threat from increased mining activities, housing and cattle grazing.

Site description

Grandes Chutes Classified Forest is located between the towns of Coyah and Kindia on the N1 national highway, in Kindia Prefecture. The area is part of the southern extent of the Fouta Djallon, with low elevation sandstone outcrops with shallow valleys and bowal. The sandstone bowal has several microhabitats, including seasonal seepage areas which support threatened herb species such as Utricularia pobeguinii, Raphionacme caerulea, and Scleria guineensis. Part of the classified forest has an active bauxite mining concession owned by RUSAL. The Grandes Chutes falls, after which the area is named, was dammed in the 1960s to provide power to the nearby town and open-cast bauxite mine. This may have resulted in the global extinctions of Inversodicraea pygmaea and Stonesia gracilis, as this was their sole global site. They have not been discovered elsewhere, despite searches.

Botanical significance

The classified forest is the only known site for Scleria guineensis a critically endangered (CR) endemic species to Guinea. It also has a population of Raphionacme caerulea (EN). The seepage areas are rich in carnivorous plant species including five species of Lentibulariaceae two of which are threatened (Utricularia pobeguinii (EN) and Utricularia macrocheilos (VU)). Grandes Chutes falls is the only known global site for the Podostemaceae species, Inversodicraea pygmaea and Stonesia gracilis; several other species of Podostemaceae are also recorded from the site, but due to the change in hydrology caused by the dam, they are likely extinct. Targeted searches for them in January 2018 failed to find them.

Habitat and geology

Low sandstone hills with sandstone bowal, rich in bauxite in some parts, with crevices and cracks, seepage areas and temporary waterways. Ordovician sandstone of the Pita suite with patches of aleurolites (Source: Carte des Mineraux de la Guinee, Ministry of Mines, Government of Guinea, 2006).

Conservation issues

There are numerous threats to the Grandes Chutes Classified forest, most notable from the RUSAL mine and its potential expansion. There is a lot of dust across the area from the access roads and the mine itself coating the vegetation. The hydroelectric dam has already caused damage to the Podostemaceae populations. There is also an area that has been marked out for housing (seen from Google Earth). From recent visits to the area, cattle grazing and trampling in the seepage areas close to the road have been observed, which has also led to fires across the bowal areas. Since the mine and hydroelectric dam are already established, the TIPA area will have two core areas of protection within the larger boundary of the CF to protect specific populations of threatened species.

Site assessor(s)

Charlotte Couch, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Denise Molmou, Herbier National de Guinee/ Simfer

IPA criterion A qualifying species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Raphionacme caerulea E.A.Bruce A(i) True True False False False Scarce
Scleria guineensis J.Raynal A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Utricularia macrocheilos (P.Taylor) P.Taylor A(i), A(iii) True True True False False Frequent
Utricularia pobeguinii Pellegr. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False Scarce
Stonesia gracilis G.Taylor A(i) True True True True False Unknown
Inversodicraea pygmaea G.Taylor A(i) True True True True False Unknown
Sericanthe trilocularis (Scott Elliot) Robbr. subsp. paroissei (Aubrév. & Pellegr.) Robbr. A(iii) True True True False False Unknown
Keetia susu Cheek A(i) True False False False False Scarce
Coleus sp. nov. A(i) True True True True False Scarce
Dilophotriche occidentalis Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True False False False False Frequent

Raphionacme caerulea E.A.Bruce

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Scleria guineensis J.Raynal

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Utricularia macrocheilos (P.Taylor) P.Taylor

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

Utricularia pobeguinii Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Stonesia gracilis G.Taylor

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Inversodicraea pygmaea G.Taylor

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Sericanthe trilocularis (Scott Elliot) Robbr. subsp. paroissei (Aubrév. & Pellegr.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Unknown

Keetia susu Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Coleus sp. nov.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Scarce

Dilophotriche occidentalis Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:
Frequent

IPA criterion C qualifying habitats

Habitat Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 5% of national resource ≥ 10% of national resource 1 of 5 best sites nationally Areal coverage at site
Low Altitude Sandstone Bowal Grasslands C(iii) False True True 41

Low Altitude Sandstone Bowal Grasslands

Qualifying sub-criterion:
C(iii)
≥ 5% of national resource:
False
≥ 10% of national resource:
True
Areal coverage at site:
41

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland No value Major

Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Agriculture (pastoral) No value Major
Extractive industry No value Major
Residential / urban development No value Minor

Agriculture (pastoral)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Extractive industry

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Residential / urban development

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Minor

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas Medium Ongoing - stable
Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Medium Ongoing - increasing
Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Medium Ongoing - increasing
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying High Ongoing - increasing

Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Grandes Chutes Classified Forest Classified Forest protected/conservation area encompasses IPA No value

Grandes Chutes Classified Forest

Protected area type:
Classified Forest
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Lisowski, S., 2009

Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée.

Couch, C; Magassouba, S; Rokni, S; Cheek, M., 2018

Threatened plants species of Guinea-Conakry: A preliminary checklist

Peerj Preprints

IUCN, 2019

IUCN Red List

Available online

Recommended citation

Charlotte Couch, Martin Cheek, Denise Molmou (2021) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Grandes Chutes Classified Forest (Guinea). https://tipas.kew.org/site/grandes-chutes-classified-forest/ (Accessed on 04/03/2021)