Edea Falls

Chutes de la Sanaga

CMNTIPA052
Edea Falls

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Littoral (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 3.81223 N, 10.12943 E

Area: 0.1km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The site qualifies as a an IPA under criterion A(i), A(iii) and A(iv) due to the presence of two globally threatened (CR) which are narrowly endemic to the site.

Site description

The waterfalls on the Sanaga at Edea are the surviving part of a formerly more impressive feature which has been exploited since the 1950s with a dam for a major hydro-electric power station...

Botanical significance

Three Critically Endangered narrowly endemic rheophytes of the Podostemaceae family, Zehnderia microgyna, Dicraeanthus zehnderi and Winklerella dichotoma survive at the site next to the dam (Ghogue, 2010a, 2010b).
[Ghogue's IUCN assessment seems to suggest that Ledermanniella thalloidea also occurs here but the only record is of a tributary of the Sanaga, 10 km north of Edea.

Leiothylax quangensis: "In Cameroon the plant is known from one site (Edea waterfall, two small populations; confirmation is needed that these populations still exist after the construction of the Edea dam) and the distribution in Angola and the DRC is not known".

Habitat and geology

Conservation issues

The three endemic species are reported to survive next to the dam in a reduced population, acutely vulnerable to extension or other disurbtance related to the operation of the dam. The altered seasonal flows of the river, due to this tam but also those existing (the Lom-Pangar dam) and under construction (the Nachtigal hydro project) are also likely to impact the regeneration of these species which tend to require seasonal variation in water levels to flower and fruit.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Winklerella dichotoma Engl. A(i), A(iii), A(iv) True True True True False
Dicraeanthus zehnderi H.Hess A(i) True True True True False
Zehnderia microgyna C.Cusset A(i), A(iii), A(iv) True True True True False
Leiothylax quangensis (Engl.) Warm A(i) True True True False False

Winklerella dichotoma Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dicraeanthus zehnderi H.Hess

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Zehnderia microgyna C.Cusset

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leiothylax quangensis (Engl.) Warm

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls] 100 Major

Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Natural system modifications - Dams & water management/use - Large dams High Ongoing - stable
Energy production & mining - Renewable energy High Ongoing - stable

Natural system modifications - Dams & water management/use - Large dams

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Energy production & mining - Renewable energy

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Bibliography

Ghogue, J.-P., 2010

Winklerella dichotoma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T185552A8434624.

Available online

Ghogue, J.-P., 2010

Dicraeanthus zehnderi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T185600A8444300

Available online

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Edea Falls (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/edea-falls/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)