Ebo Forest

CMNTIPA003
Ebo Forest

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Littoral (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 4.30970 N, 10.31670 E

Area: 1423km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Ebo Forest qualifies as an Important Plant Area of Cameroon on the basis of nationally significant populations of globally threatened species and also the exceptional botanical diversity of the site, indicated by the large number of nationally endemic species. Although it has only recently and incompletely been surveyed, 78 globally threatened IUCN Red List species have been recorded at the site, representing over 10% of the Cameroon total. Of these, most qualify under TIPAS criterion A and 8 species are strictly endemic to the site.
Over 800 species (c. 10% of the Cameroonian flora) have been recorded from the area, with many more specimens awaiting identification. When more fully surveyed the area is likely to become one of the richest plant sites in Cameroon. Over 40 national endemics occur and a huge variety of socially, economically or culturally valuable species are used by local people. The site is also likely to qualify under criterion C as one of the country's best examples of coastal/Biafran lowland rainforest.

Site description

The Ebo forest in Littoral Region, Cameroon, covers c. 1,400 km² of evergreen lowland and submontane cloud forest along numerous low, parallel ridges between the Wouri and Sanaga rivers approximately 100 km from the coast. The suggested IPA site corresponds to the former proposed National Park and is centered around the confluence of the two branches of the Ebo river at approximately 4.3097 N,10.3167 E. From there the river flows SSW, bisecting the site. Small villages surround the Ebo forest populated by the Banen and Bassa peoples, and until the late 1950s and early 1960s there were several inhabited villages within the forest (Abwe & Morgan, 2008). The Ebo Forest Research Project (EFRP) has been working in the forest and with communities surrounding it since the important discovery in 2002 of a lowland Gorilla population in the forest. This population, possibly a unique subspecies, is isolated from other populations of both the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) and Western Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (Oates et al 2003; Morgan, Wild and Ekobo 2003). The forest also harbours many other rare mammals, including one of the largest global surviving populations of both the drill, a Critically Endangered, range-restricted primate, and the rarest Chimpanzee subspecies, Pan troglodytes ellioti (Morgan et al 2013). The latter is uniquely known amongst Chimpanzees to use tools for both termite fishing and nut cracking (Abwe and Morgan, 2008). The forest is one of few classed as “exceptional priority” for Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees by the IUCN-endorsed conservation action plan for the subspecies (Morgan et al 2011). It also constitutes nearly 50% of the Yabassi Key Biodiversity Area (BirdLife International, 2020). Botanically, the forest was hardly known until surveys in the early 21st century found it to be one of the richest and largest surviving intact areas of lowland and submontane forest in tropical Africa, harbouring many globally threatened and nationally endemic plant species (Cheek et al., 2018). These surveys have also revealed several species new to science.

Botanical significance

Although located in the biologically important zone between the Cross and Sanaga rivers, which contains the highest plant species diversity per degree square in tropical Africa (Barthlott et al., 1999), the botanical significance of the Ebo forest has only become apparent to scientists in the twentieth-first century. Twentieth century collections were made by the botanists Leouzey and Leeuwenberg in the Yabassi-Yingui area but Ebo was almost completely unsurveyed for plants until 2004 when surveys were undertaken by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Herbier National du Cameroun, resulting in 2590 herbarium specimens. These collections suggest that diversity and endemism may be equivalent or even greater than that found at Kupe-Bakossi 100 km to the north where 82 endemic and 212 threatened species have been documented (Cheek et al., 2018). So far, surveying efforts have resulted in publication of sixteen new species to science discovered at Ebo, ranging from herbs and shrubs to canopy trees. Eight of these Ardisia ebo, Palisota ebo, Inversodicraea ebo, Kupeantha ebo, Crateranthus cameroonensis, Pseudohydrosme ebo, Uvariopsis dicaprio and Kupeantha yabassi are narrowly endemic to Ebo while two others have a slightly larger range but have also been named after the site: Gilbertiodendron ebo and Talbotiella ebo. Further new species to science remain to be published in the genera: Ardisia, Begonia, Chassalia, Cola, Justicia, Ledermanniella, Mitriostigma, Pavetta, Psychotria, Rhaptopetalum and Zenkerella (M. Cheek pers. comm., 2020). Many of these species are also so far endemic to Ebo or its immediate neighbourhood. Overall, the area is known to contain over 100 globally threatened species from the official IUCN Red List as well as several others that are Near Threatened, or provisionally threatened but awaiting formal IUCN assessment. In total, well over 800 species have already been recorded at Ebo, one tenth of the total Cameroon flora (Onana, 2011), and at least 40 species are nationally endemic.
The proposed area is important for both lowland evergreen moist tropical forest, containing species ranging from the spectacular and globally endemic herb Pseudohydrosme Ebo to the giant, Endangered timber tree Microberlinia bisulcata, as well as submontane cloud forest featuring rare endemics such as Uvariopsis dicaprio and Kupeantha ebo. In addition, small areas of deciduous forest occur on igneous outcrops, featuring species such as Ochna calodendron which is of traditional significance to local people. Important waterfall communities also exist within the area, such as that containing the globally endemic Inversodicraea ebo from one of the most threatened plant families in Africa (Cheek et al., 2017). These rare plants are likely to be particularly affected by any incursions in the forest area because of their sensitivity to water turbidity which can be caused by increased surface run-off associated with forest clearance.
Nearly all plant collecting has been in two small areas around the Bekob and Njuma camps; the rest of the site has hardly been explored botanically and likely contains much else that is worthy of scientific research.

Habitat and geology

The forest lies on ancient, highly weathered, basement complex rocks, with some ferralitic areas in the lower, flatter southern part (Cheek et al., 2018). The topology consists of numerous low parallel, ridges running SSW-NNE, parallel with the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Altitude ranges from c. 130 to 1,115 m, with the south flatter and lower than the northern part. There is a wet season from March until November with >100 mm precipitation. Rainfall has been measured at Bekob and Njuma within the proposed area at 2,336 and 3,135 mm p.a. respectively between 2010 and 2016 (Cheek et al., 2018). Mean annual temperature is 25–28 °C (Whytock et al., 2021). The Ebo river flows south through the site into the Dibamba river which joins the Cameroon estuary at Douala.
Ebo forest is a major part of the largest intact forest landscape in the important Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forest ecoregion (Popatov et al., 2017; Grantham et al., 2020ab; Whytock et al., 2021). As well as the predominant evergreen, closed canopy lowland forest and submontane forest with Podocarpus latifolius, there are also areas of semi-deciduous woodland on inselbergs and waterfall communities. According to Letouzey's (1981) categorisation, the site consists mainly of variations on dense humid Atlantic Littoral forest (type 247), Atlantic Biafran forest (types 228, 235) and Atlantic Northwest forest with semi-deciduous elements (type 205), as well as some submontane forest (type 117). Varying abundances of "caesalpinioid" legume species and the presence of Sacoglottis gabonensis are used to define these variations.

Conservation issues

The Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife (MINFOF) started the process of gazettement of this forest as a national park in 2006 following work by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Cameroon. The process had stalled, partly due to objections from local communities wary of losing traditional rights to the forest, when in March 2020 decrees (signed in February 2020) were unexpectedly revealed announcing that the area of the proposed National Park would instead be brought under two Forest Management Units (FMU) to be commercially exploited for timber. This would have seriously increased the danger to the majority of threatened plant species and made the continued long term survival of the important faunal populations untenable. The surprise development was also opposed by local villagers, this time in coalition with a range of local and international conservation organisations, resulting in the government revoking the concessions in August 2020 (Alberts, 2020; Cheek et al., 2021). The ultimate status of the forest remains undecided but conservation agencies have now forged a close working alliance with local villagers and are keenly aware that traditional access and use of the forest should be a key component of conservation plans (Mfossa et al., 2018; Gaworecki, 2020; Truscott, 2021).
Despite the suspension of plans for direct exploitation, the site remains threatened by encroachment. To the north lies a large forestry concession (FMU 00-004) while logging roads in the southern part of the forest give access to illicit logging and bushmeat hunting. A major 123,000 ha palm oil plantation has also been established on the western fringe of the forest by the Cameroonian company Azur/Greenfil, which, it is feared, will lead to an increase in encroachments into the forest for bushmeat and logging as well as forming a dispersal boundary for forest populations (Mowbray, 2017; Earthsight, 2018; Orozco & Salber, 2019). Non-industrial cultivation is actually the main source of palm oil in the region, and is a further local threat through insidious and ongoing forest fragmentation (Nkongho et al.,2014; Mahmoud et al., 2019). A study of Ebo and the wider Littoral region reported a 57% increase in fragmentation of natural forest between 1975 and 2017 (Mahmoud et al 2019). Future expansion of cultivation into the Ebo forest area can also be envisaged if timber extraction does proceed in and around the forest since logging and road building has been shown to be a facilitator of further land clearance (Mahmoud et al 2019). The conservation of the forest is also threatened by mining permits covering the southeastern part, amounting to around a third of the area (Mahmoud et al., 2019).

Ecosystem services

The Ebo forest provides crucial habitat to several Endangered primates listed as Class A under the Cameroon Wildlife Law of 1994, as well as a great diversity of other fauna and flora (Abwe & Morgan, 2008; Birdlife International, 2020; Cheek et al., 2018; Whytock et al., 2021). The forest is an important, internationally recognised centre of academic research for students and scientists at the University of Douala, and the EFRP supported by San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance (SDZWA). The people of over 40 local communities are reliant on the forest for medicines and food, as well as timber, wood and freshwater. It also has great cultural and spiritual importance since many of the older people in these communities grew up in villages within the forest before these were abandoned, and the grave-sites of elders buried in the forest are still visited (Murphy, 2020). Leaders of these communities have asserted the importance of this cultural heritage through the legally recognised association of traditional chiefs, association des Chefs Traditionnels Riverains de La Forêt d’Ebo (ACTRIFE) (Mfossa et al., 2017). The forest has also been estimated to have a total carbon stock of 35 million tonnes (GFW, 2020). Many species of scientific and economic importance are also found within the forest, including timber trees like Diospyros crassiflora which provides African ebony used for musical instruments, and Rungia congoensis which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties (Kapepula et al., 2019).

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Ekwoge Abwe, Ebo Forest Research Project, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance (SDZWA)

Xander van der Burgt, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Martin Cheek, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Bethan Morgan, Ebo Forest Research Project, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance (SDZWA)

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Afrofittonia silvestris Lindau A(i) True False True False False
Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr. A(i) False True False False False
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) False True False False True
Afzelia pachyloba Harms A(i) False True False False True
Allanblackia gabonensis (Pellegr.) Bamps A(i) True False False False False
Ardisia ebo Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Asystasia lindauiana Hutch. & Dalziel A(i) True True False False False
Aulacocalyx camerooniana Sonké & S.E.Dawson A(i) True True False False False
Berlinia korupensis Mackinder & Burgt A(i) True True False False False
Belonophora ongensis S.E.Dawson & Cheek A(i), A(iii) True True False False False
Boutiquea platypetala (Engl. & Diels) Le Thomas A(i) True True False False False
Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr. A(i) True True False False False
Campylospermum umbricola (Tiegh.) Farron A(i) False False False False False
Chazaliella obanensis (Wernham) Petit & Verdc. A(i) True True True False False
Chlamydocardia subrhomboidea Lindau A(i) True True False False False
Coffea fotsoana Stoffelen & Sonké A(i) True True False False False
Daniellia oblonga Oliv. A(i) True True False False False
Diospyros crassiflora Hiern A(i) False False False False True
Dorstenia prorepens Engl. A(i) True True False False False
Drypetes preussii (Pax) Hutch. A(i) True True False False False
Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague) Sprague A(i) False False False False True
Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke A(i) True True False False False
Garcinia kola Heckel A(i) False False False False True
Gilbertiodendron ebo Burgt & Mackinder A(i) True True False False True
Gilbertiodendron newberyi Burgt A(i) True True True False True
Hoplestigma pierreanum Gilg A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Hymenostegia brachyura (Harms) J.Léonard A(i) True True False False False
Impatiens frithii Cheek A(i) True True False False False
Inversodicraea ebo Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Kupeantha ebo Alvarez & Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. A(i) False False False False True
Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev. A(i) True False True False True
Microcos magnifica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Momordica enneaphylla Cogn. A(i) False False False False False
Myrianthus fosi Cheek A(i) True True False False True
Ochna calodendron Gilg & Mildbr. A(i) True True True False True
Palisota ebo Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Pauridiantha divaricata (K.Schum.) Bremek. A(i) True True False False False
Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern A(i) True True False False False
Piptostigma macrophyllum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur A(i) True True False False False
Piptostigma submontanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur, A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria darwiniana Cheek A(i) True True False False False
Psychotria densinervia (K.Krause) Verdc. A(i), A(iii) True True False False False
Psychotria lanceifolia K.Schum. A(i) True True False False False
Psychotria njumei Cheek A(i) True True False False False
Rhaptopetalum breteleri Letouzey A(i) True True False False False
Rhaptopetalum sessilifolium Engl. A(i), A(iii) True True False False False
Sabicea rufa Wernham A(i) True True True False False
Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham A(i) True True False False False
Salacia nigra Cheek A(i) True True False False False
Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms A(i) False False False False False
Secamone letouzeana (H. Huber) Klack. A(i) False False False False False
Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl. A(i) True True False False False
Talbotiella ebo Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True True True False False
Tapinanthus preussii (Engl.) Tiegh. A(i) True True False False False
Trichostachys petiolata Hiern A(i) True True False False False
Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau A(i) True False True False False
Whitfieldia preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke A(i) True True False False False
Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv. A(i) True False True False False
Crateranthus cameroonensis Cheek & Prance A(i) True True True True False
Mendoncia camerounensis Breteler & Wieringa A(i) True True True False False
Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f. A(i) True True False False False
Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa A(i) True True True False False
Costus albiflos Maas & H.Maas A(i) True True False False False
Costus kupensis H.Maas & Maas A(i) True True True False False
Plagiosiphon discifer Harms A(i) True True True False False
Rungia congoensis C.B.Clarke A(ii) False False False False False
Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl. A(i) False False False False False
Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep. A(i) True False True False False
Nothodissotis barteri (Hook.f.) Veranso-Libalah & G.Kadereit A(i) True True True False False
Anthonotha xanderi Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Afrothismia fungiformis Sainge & Kenfack A(i) True True True False False
Pseudohydrosme ebo Cheek A(i) True True True True False
Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline A(iii), A(iv) True True True True False
Dicranolepis polygaloides Gilg ex H.Pearson A(i) True False False False False
Rhaphidophora pusilla N.E.Br A(i) True True True False False
Leplaea thompsonii (Sprague & Hutch.) E.J.M.Koenen & J.J.de Wilde A(i) False False False False True
Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham A(i) False False False False False
Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké A(i) False False True False False
Bulbophyllum alinae Szlach. A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum calvum Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Genyorchis platybulbon Schltr. A(i) True False True False False
Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr. A(i) True False True False False
Eggelingia gabonensis P.J.Cribb & Laan A(i) True True True False False
Kupeantha yabassi M.G.Alvarez & Cheek A(i), A(iii) True True True True False
Phyllanthus caesiifolius Petra Hoffm. & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Phyllanthus nyale Petra Hoffm. & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Guibourtia pellegriniana J.Léonard A(i) False True True False False
Neolemonniera batesii (Engl.) Heine A(i) True True True False False
Thyrsosalacia pararacemosa N.Hallé A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum porphyrostachys Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain A(i) True True True False False
Coffea leonimontana Stoff. A(i) True True True False False
Dichapetalum korupinum Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Vitex yaundensis Gürke A(i) True True True False False
Aristolochia preussii Engl. A(i) True True True False False
Landolphia maxima (K.Schum. ex Hallier f.) Pichon A(i) True True True False False
Rinorea thomasii Achound. A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria arborea Hiern A(i) True True True False False
Trichoscypha mannii Hook.f. A(i) False True True False False
Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. A(i) False False False False True
Tricalysia vadensis Robbr. A(i) True True True False False
Impatiens banen Cheek A(iii) True True True True False
Thunbergia cuanzensis S.Moore A(iii) True True True False False

Afrofittonia silvestris Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrostyrax lepidophyllus Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Afzelia pachyloba Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Allanblackia gabonensis (Pellegr.) Bamps

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ardisia ebo Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Asystasia lindauiana Hutch. & Dalziel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aulacocalyx camerooniana Sonké & S.E.Dawson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Berlinia korupensis Mackinder & Burgt

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Belonophora ongensis S.E.Dawson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Boutiquea platypetala (Engl. & Diels) Le Thomas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Campylospermum umbricola (Tiegh.) Farron

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chazaliella obanensis (Wernham) Petit & Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Chlamydocardia subrhomboidea Lindau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coffea fotsoana Stoffelen & Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Daniellia oblonga Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diospyros crassiflora Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Dorstenia prorepens Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes preussii (Pax) Hutch.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague) Sprague

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Floscopa mannii C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia kola Heckel

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Gilbertiodendron ebo Burgt & Mackinder

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Gilbertiodendron newberyi Burgt

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Hoplestigma pierreanum Gilg

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia brachyura (Harms) J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens frithii Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Inversodicraea ebo Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Kupeantha ebo Alvarez & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Microcos magnifica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Momordica enneaphylla Cogn.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Myrianthus fosi Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Ochna calodendron Gilg & Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Palisota ebo Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pauridiantha divaricata (K.Schum.) Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta brachycalyx Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma macrophyllum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma submontanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur,

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria darwiniana Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria densinervia (K.Krause) Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria lanceifolia K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria njumei Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhaptopetalum breteleri Letouzey

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhaptopetalum sessilifolium Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea rufa Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea xanthotricha Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia nigra Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Schefflera mannii (Hook.f.) Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Secamone letouzeana (H. Huber) Klack.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Talbotiella ebo Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tapinanthus preussii (Engl.) Tiegh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichostachys petiolata Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis submontana Kenfack, Gosline & Gereau

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Whitfieldia preussii (Lindau) C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Xylopia africana (Benth.) Oliv.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Crateranthus cameroonensis Cheek & Prance

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Mendoncia camerounensis Breteler & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hymenostegia viridiflora Mackinder & Wieringa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Costus albiflos Maas & H.Maas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Costus kupensis H.Maas & Maas

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Plagiosiphon discifer Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rungia congoensis C.B.Clarke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(ii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis zenkeri Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vitex lokundjensis W.Piep.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Nothodissotis barteri (Hook.f.) Veranso-Libalah & G.Kadereit

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Anthonotha xanderi Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afrothismia fungiformis Sainge & Kenfack

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudohydrosme ebo Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Uvariopsis dicaprio Cheek & Gosline

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dicranolepis polygaloides Gilg ex H.Pearson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhaphidophora pusilla N.E.Br

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Leplaea thompsonii (Sprague & Hutch.) E.J.M.Koenen & J.J.de Wilde

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Sabicea medusula K.Schum. ex Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Globulostylis rammelooana Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum alinae Szlach.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum calvum Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Genyorchis platybulbon Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Eggelingia gabonensis P.J.Cribb & Laan

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Kupeantha yabassi M.G.Alvarez & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Phyllanthus caesiifolius Petra Hoffm. & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Phyllanthus nyale Petra Hoffm. & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Guibourtia pellegriniana J.Léonard

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Neolemonniera batesii (Engl.) Heine

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Thyrsosalacia pararacemosa N.Hallé

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum porphyrostachys Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Hamilcoa zenkeri (Pax) Prain

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coffea leonimontana Stoff.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Dichapetalum korupinum Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vitex yaundensis Gürke

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Aristolochia preussii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Landolphia maxima (K.Schum. ex Hallier f.) Pichon

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea thomasii Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria arborea Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichoscypha mannii Hook.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Tricalysia vadensis Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Impatiens banen Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Thunbergia cuanzensis S.Moore

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 80 Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest 20 Major
Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls] No value Unknown

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
80
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
20
Importance:
Major

Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Unknown

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Harvesting of wild resources 100 Minor

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:
Minor

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Medium Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations Medium Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest] High Future - planned activity
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Low Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Severity:
High
Timing:
Future - planned activity

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Yabassi Important Bird Area Important Bird Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 1400
Yabassi Key Biodiversity Area Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA 1400

Yabassi Important Bird Area

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
1400

Yabassi Key Biodiversity Area

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area overlaps with IPA
Areal overlap:
1400

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
No management plan in place No value No value

No management plan in place

Year started:
No value
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

IUCN, 2019

IUCN Red List

Available online

Abwe, E.E. & Morgan, B.J., 2008

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Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy, Ekwoge Abwe, Xander van der Burgt, Martin Cheek, Bethan Morgan (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Ebo Forest (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/ebo-forest/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)