Dja Faunal reserve

CMNTIPA038
Dja Faunal reserve

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: East and South (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 3.00000 N, 13.00000 E

Area: 6278km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

The Dja Faunal Reserve qualifies as a potential IPA on the basis of several globally threatened plant species, particularly Telfairia batesii (EN), which is recorded only from two locations in the vicinity of Dja and unconfirmed reports from the reserve itself, and Sabicea cruciata (CR), which is recorded from only a single other site in Equatorial Guinea. Bulbophyllum fayi (VU), Cyclantheropsis occidentalis (EN), Drypetes tessmanniana (CR), Homalium hypolasium (EN) and Sabicea cameroonensis (EN) are also notable. In addition, the site would likely qualify under criterion B(iii) as one of the best sites for timber, medicinal and other useful species, and under criterion C(iii) as one of the best sites for evergreen lowland forests (or Letouzey's "Dja Forest" type).

Site description

Dja Faunal Reserve is the largest protected areas in Cameroon. It is located in a sparsely populated area in southern Cameroon, straddling the boundary between East region (Haut-Nyong Division) and South Region (Dja-et-Lobo Division), approximately 300 km east of Kribi on the Atlantic coast and 60 km from the southern border with Gabon and Republic of Congo. It is bordered by the settlements of Bengbis in the northwest and Lomie in the east, with Sangmélima 50 km to the southwest, Yaoundé 120 km northwest and Abong-Mbang 60 km to the north. To the south and east a huge area of relatively undisturbed forest features several other Cameroon protected areas and the transboundary TRIDOM and Sangha Trinational zones.
Dja was designated a hunting reserve in 1950, before becoming a wildlife reserve in 1973. In 1981 UNESCO designated it a Biosphere Reserve and in 1987 a World Heritage Site. The Biosphere reserve was extended in 2020 and now incorporates a total of 1,328,097 ha, including a transition zone of 740,000 ha.
The boundaries of the IPA proposed here match those of the KBA, which include the buffer zone of the Dja Faunal Reserve, increasing the area from 526,000 ha to 627,797 (KBA Partnership, 2020). This approximately matches the 623,619 ha under the original 1973 designation (Forestry Act Ordinance 73/18, cited by IUCN & UNESCO, 2012).
A population of c. 4,000 (UNESCO, 2019) nomadic Baka forest people live traditionally within the reserve in accordance with enshrining laws valuing their cultural heritage, while populations on the borders of the reserve, estimated at 40,000, include the Banjoué to the North, Nzimé to the east, Mbulu to the west and Fang-Nzaman to the South, as well as other nomadic Baka and Kaka groups (UNESCO, 2021; Betti, 2004; MINFOF & IUCN, 2015).

Botanical significance

Established as a faunal reserve but encompassing a very large area of well-protected Guineo–Congolian lowland evergreen and semi-deciduous forest, the Dja Faunal Reserve also represents a botanically important area. Just how rich it might be for plant diversity or endemicity is hard to judge given the relatively low level of botanical collecting in most of the area. However, a reasonable number of globally threatened species are listed here, while 312 identified tree species (dbh >= 10cm) have been recorded from a plot study of nine transects (5 x 5,000 m, total area 22.5 ha) with another 60 morphospecies unidentified (Sonké & Couvreur, 2012). Herbaceous plants are probably less known although the orchid flora is considered to be noteworthy (UNESCO, 2021).
Amongst the threatened taxa, the reserve is particularly important for Sabicea cruciata (CR), Sabicea cameroonensis, Bulbopyllum fayi (VU), Diaphananthe sarcorhynchoides (VU) , Drypetes tessmanniana (CR), Staurogyne pseudocapitata (EN), Homalium ogoouense (VU) and Calycobolus micranthus (VU). Several rare and threatened species are also known from collections made a little outside the boundaries, particularly those made a century ago by the missionary G.L. Bates from an area near Bitye, close to the Dja river a few km southeast of the Reserve, such as Ixora batesii (CR), Dalbergia nervosa (EN), Agelanthus dichorus (VU) and Telfairia batesii Keraudren (EN). The latter, a very rare Cameroon endemic, was also collected from the Nkout ridge (another important site), just south of Dja, and there are unconfirmed reports that the species might also occur within the reserve (Lovell & Cheek, 2020). Synsepalum batesii (CR) is known from only a single collection in 1921 (Bates 1742) from Bitye, Pavetta robusta (EN) and Pavetta cellulosa (VU) from a few additional locations, and Psychotria lanceifolia (VU) is now known to be quite widespread (Onana & Cheek, 2011); none of these are recorded within the reserve itself. Pachylobus (Dacryodes) igaganga (VU), very rarely recorded in Cameroon, is known from a plot record on the fringes of the reserve near Lomie. Pavetta laxa (CR) is known only from a single collection (Letouzey 4581) near Mekomo, 8 km SW from the confluence of the Dja and Lobe rivers; while this puts it at least 7 km from the nearest boundary of the western buffer zone and around 20 km from the boundary of the strict reserve, rediscovery within the reserve may be the best hope for this species as the collection site area is close to a rubber plantation and is being encroached by slash and burn agriculture, possibly exacerbated by a service road to the nearby Mekin hydroelectric dam (Cheek, 2017).

Habitat and geology

Dja has a four season climate, with the major wet season between September and December (with average monthly rainfall peaking in October at 268 mm), and a lesser wet season between March and June. Rainfall is considerably lower than along the Cameroon Volcanic Line, averaging 1,570 mm, with a monthly average of only 18 mm in December and January. Temperature varies relatively little seasonally around a mean of 23.3° (at 640 m), with mean monthly maxima and minima in August, the coolest month, of 27° and 18° C respectively and of 30° and 19° in April, the hottest month. Humidity remains high all year (IUCN & UNESCO, 2012; Peh et al., 2011).
Geologically the site is part of the South Cameroon Plateau, resting on Precambrian metamorphic basement rocks of the Mbalmayo–Bengbis and Dja series, mainly schists, gneisses and quartzites (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012; Yerima & Van Ranst, 2005). The topography rises slightly to an east-west ridge in the centre and is characterised by numerous small, dome-like hills with a network of shallow valleys in between visible on satellite imagery. A fault-line running along the southern border results in steeper valleys and cliffs in the south, with rapids and waterfalls along the rivers (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012). Soils are Haplic ferralsols of kaolinite clay with iron and aluminum sesquioxides, red (on the higher areas) to yellow and brown, porous and with good physical structure but very weathered and low in all nutrients, especially phosphate (Yerima & Van Ranst, 2005; Peng et al., 2011; IUCN-UNESCO, 2012). After initial forest clearance for agriculture, organic content and nutrients may be quickly and suddenly depleted. Valley areas may be hydromorphic and swampy (Sonké, 2005).
Dja reserve is a large site featuring relatively little geological and edaphic variation or altitudinal range, although having an undulating topology and areas of forest on terra firma, swamp forest and seasonally inundated forest (Manel et al., 2014). Letouzey (1985) characterises most of the reserve as "Dja forests on wet and dry ground and valleys with Uapaca paludosa" (type 187). The forest canopy is typically 30–40 meters high, with emergents (mainly Baillonella toxisperma) up to 60 m (MINFOF & IUCN, 2015). Towards the northwest greater semi-deciduous elements are mapped, although the evergreen forest is still considered dominant (type 190); prairies on chlorite schists (201) are scattered in the western half; and there are degraded areas towards the edges. Sonké & Hardy (2012) distinguish two types of hydromorphic forest: swamp forest in valley bottoms and periodically flooded forest. Degraded or secondary forest areas are common towards the perimeter and are notably lacking in Meliaceae (IUCN & UN, 2012).
Areas of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei monodominant forest are also important (Letouzey 1985, Sonke 2005, Djuikouo et al., 2010, 2014), occuring on flood-prone alluvial soils according to some sources (IUCN & UN, 2012) although Peh et al. (2011) found them not to correspond to physical or chemical soil characteristics.
Despite the relatively homogenous physical environment and moderate rainfall, diversity appears to be high (Djuikouo et al., 2010). Letouzey (1968) considered the Dja forest to be a melting pot between the Biafran Atlantic forest and the semi-deciduous forest further north. Hardy and Sonke (2004) and Manel (2014) found that much of the distributional pattern of diversity accorded with a neutral model of limited dispersion, although habitat heterogeneity also played a part.

Conservation issues

The original 1987 UNESCO inscription describes the 526,000 ha as one the best protected rainforests in Africa, of "unique pristine condition" with 90% "intact" and "undisturbed". The site is managed by MINFOF through the Dja Conservation Service (UNESCO, 2021b) with a variety of international NGOs involved in supporting conservation, including WWF and ZSL. Conservation concern is primarily centered on the decline of large faunal populations (UNESCO, 2019). In 2005 Numbers of both Gorillas and Chimpanzees were each estimated at c.4000 (approximately the same as the resident human population within the core reserve) and elephants numbered 1,150 (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012). However, a 2018 faunal survey estimated numbers of elephants at only 219, Gorillas at 1,258 and Chimpanzees at 2,313, a 50% decline since 2015 for elephants, following an 84% decline from 1995–2015 (MINFOF & IUCN, 2015), although the severity of these declines may have been partly due to previously inflated figures and methodological differences (Bruce et al., 2018). The UNESCO (2019) report describes the reserve as in a "very fragile situation", with numbers of Elephants, Gorillas and Chimpanzees "very low", and warns of "local extinction" of elephants if the decline is not reversed.
While the plant biodiversity within the strict reserve faces less direct threat, the decline of large fauna through hunting and poaching would likely lead to reduction in conservation effort and funding, as well as affecting plant populations through loss of vital natural seed dispersers. The river Dja provides natural protection for the forest around much of the site border; c. 4,000 forest-dwelling Baka people resident within the reserve itself are permitted to hunt but not practice agriculture (UNESCO, 2021). However, there is agricultural encroachment of the forest inside the river perimeter and within the reserve in the northwest around Bengbis, as well as around various settlements along the road running within the northern buffer zone and in the east around Lomie (KBA partnership, 2020; Google Earth 2021; IUCN-UNESCO, 2012). The KBA profile of the site reports a slow but significant deterioration due to small scale agriculture and agro-industry (KBA partnership, 2020). Much of the Biosphere reserve area outside the strict reserve is demarcated for timber extraction as Forest Management Units, (FMUs), risking isolation of plant and animal populations from the wider forests landscape (Betti, 2004b; KBA Partnership, 2020). Plans to declassify 1,000 ha of the Bengbis community forest are considered likely to exacerbate deforestation of the periphery (UNESCO, 2019). Implementation of a buffer zone is urged, with activities limited by conservation principles (UNESCO, 2019). The well preserved condition of the forest owes much to the hitherto isolated and sparsely populated nature of the wider area. Although the TRIDOM scheme and the Biosphere reserve offer some protection for the peripheral area, development, including resurfacing and construction of new roads and bridges, threatens the integrity of this zone (UNESCO, 2019). The site is largely surrounded by exploratory mining concessions, with active exploitation granted in the east for cobalt, manganese and nickel but apparently not yet commenced; calcareous rocks under the Dja river on the southeast border raise the prospect of cement production (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012); diamond, gold and iron mining are also possible in the south and southeast (MINFOF & IUCN, 2015). On the western border, the Mékin dam and SUDCAM rubber and palm oil plantations bring increased infrastructure, population and development pressures (MINFOF & IUCN, 2015). The Mékin dam has already flooded part of the site and impacted water quality of the Dja river (UNESCO, 2019). Further to the east the planned rail link from the Kribi deep water port to the Mballam iron ore mine deep within the isolated forests 80 km south of Dja threatens to transform the TRIDOM area (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012; Betti, 1998).
Conflicts between conservationists or forest wardens and Baka forest people who live off the forest are a prominent issue in central Africa. Dja Faunal Reserve should not be confused with the nearby proposed Messok Dja National Park in Republic of Congo where abuses of Baka people by WWF agents have been reported and conservation is viewed with suspicion or hostility. However, Gallois et al. (2020) report some clashes with rangers over destructive harvesting by Baka of Irvingia trees within the reserve. Devastation of faunal populations is mainly due to groups outside the reserve using modern hunting methods to harvest ivory and bushmeat for the Yaoundé market, and operating from logging concession areas at the periphery (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012).
A management plan, initially drawn up in 2003, was approved in 2007 and launched in 2008 (UNESCO, 2009), but subsequent yearly reports have repeatedly drawn attention to the "lack of entire approval and implementation" (e.g. UNESCO, 2019). Although the Cameroon forest law stipulates a management plan should be updated every five years, there has been no revision of the 2008 plan which was drafted five years earlier and is therefore already outdated in some respects. A lack of sufficient scientific, qualitative and quantitative data in the management plan is argued to limit the feasibility of stipulated aims for participatory conservation in such a vast reserve (J.L. Betti, 2021, pers. com. 9 August). Forest degradation has also been exacerbated by the departure of the ECOFAC project and a failure to implement significant local development projects as a tool for both improving local communities and reducing pressure on forest resources (J.L. Betti, 2021, pers. com. 9 August).

Ecosystem services

The site is one of the main bastions in Cameroon for large fauna such as Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Elephants and Leopards, as well as over 100 other mammal species (Bruce et al., 2018; IUCN-UNESCO, 2012; MINFOF & IUCN, 2015). It is also an IBA with over 320 bird species recorded.
The forest is important for NTFPs harvested by the hunter-gatherer Baka population and also other neighbouring communities, including the Badjoué, Bulu, Fang, Nzaman, Zimé and Kaka. These groups have depended for generations on plants and animals harvested in forest ecosystems. The Baka residents of the reserve live in relatively traditional ways and represent a cultural history and knowledge of 10,000–20,000 years (IUCN-UNESCO, 2012). Since the 1950s, a number of Baka groups have become sendantarised following missionary and state programs (Billong Fils et al. 2020). Although such peoples still rely on hunting and gathering to meet their basic needs, knowledge of traditional uses are in risk of dying out. Dja is one area where such traditional knowledge is preserved. Ethnobotanical surveys amongst all ethnic groups in the Dja reserve and its immediate boundaries revealed the usage of 376 medicinal plants from 308 genera in the treatment of 81 ailments (Betti, 2001); 100 edible wild plants were used as food or spices (Betti and Nlegue 1999; see also Billong Fils et al., 2020). Further studies have confirmed usage at Dja of at least 102 species from 97 genera by the Baka people (Betti 2004a), with 80 species used to treat malaria alone (Betti 2001; 2003a), 76 species for treating erectile dysfunction problems (Betti 2003b) and 45 species used to treat jaundice (Betti & Lejoly, 2009). For many plants used by Baka people, evidence of biological activity has been confirmed in relation to the ailments cited (Betti 2001). Populations of many timber species are also recorded, indicating that the site represents an important genetic reserve against over-harvesting of such species elsewhere (Sonke & Couvreur, 2012).
The reserve is an important drainage basin for the Dja river which is a tributary of the Congo via the Sangha.
Although ecoutourism has potential for providing sustainable development around the reserve, it is at a low level; expanding the scale without infrastructural development endangering the reserve is likely to be challenging. However, the reputation for ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional healers also raises the potential for enhancing ecotourism through ethno-medical tourism and food-tourism (J.L. Betti, 2021, pers. com. 9 August).

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Jean Lagarde Betti, National Herbarium of Cameroon

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Staurogyne pseudocapitata Champl. A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria densinervia (K.Krause) Verdc. A(i), A(iii) True False True False False
Cyclantheropsis occidentalis Gilg & Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False
Autranella congolensis (De Wild.) A.Chev. A(i) False False True False False
Drypetes tessmanniana (Pax) Pax & K.Hoffm. A(i) True True True False False
Macaranga paxii Prain A(i) True True True False False
Trichoscypha eugong Engl. & Brehmer A(i) True True True False False
Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr. A(i) False False True False False
Calycobolus micranthus (Dammer) Heine A(i) True True True False True
Bulbophyllum fayi J.J.Verm. A(i) False False False False False
Sabicea cameroonensis Wernham A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria senterrei O.Lachenaud A(i) True True True False False
Craterostigma yaundense (S.Moore) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll. A(i) True True True False False
Massularia stevartiana (K.Schum.) Hoyle A(i) True True True False False
Diospyros crassiflora Hiern A(i) False False True False True
Sabicea cruciata Wernham A(i) True True True False False
Diaphananthe sarcorhynchoides J.B.Hall A(i) True True True False False
Pavetta laxa A(i) False False False False False
Pavetta robusta Bremek. A(i) False False False False False
Pavetta cellulosa Bremek. A(ii) False False False False False
Psychotria lanceifolia K.Schum. A(i) False False False False False
Synsepalum batesii (A.Chev.) Aubrév. & Pellegr. A(i) False False False False False
Homalium hypolasium Mildbr. A(i) True True True False False
Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin A(i) False False True False True
Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. A(i) False False False False True
Dacryodes buettneri (Engl.) H.J.Lam A(i) False False True False True
Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr. A(i) True False False False False
Baillonella toxisperma Pierre A(i) False False False True False
Amphimas tessmannii Harms A(i) True True True False False
Marantochloa mildbraedii Koechlin A(i) False True True False False
Salacia lenticellosa Loes. ex Harms A(i) True True True False False
Rhipidoglossum ochyrae Szlach. & Olszewski A(i) True True True False False
Telfairia batesii Keraudren A(i), A(iii) True True True False True
Dalbergia nervosa O.Lachenaud A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Coffea anthonyi Stof f. & F.Anthony A(i) True True True False False
Cola mahoundensis Pellegr. A(i) True True True False False
Pachylobus igaganga (Aubrév. & Pellegr.) Byng & Christenh. A(i) False True True False False
Habenaria stenochila Lindl. A(i) True True True False False
Homalium ogoouense Pellegr. A(i) True True True False False
Loudetia furtiva Jacq.-Fél. A(i) True True True False False
Agelanthus dichrous (Danser) Polhill & Wiens A(i) False False False False False
Garcinia staudtii Engl. A(i) True False False False False
Magnistipula cuneatifolia Hauman A(i) True True True False False
Millettia laurentii de Wild. A(i) False False True False False
Prioria joveri (Normand ex Aubrév.) Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Pterygota bequaertii De Wild. A(i) False False True False False
Sarcophrynium villosum (Benth.) K.Schum. A(i) True True True False False
Tapinanthus preussii (Engl.) Tiegh. A(i) True False True False False
Drypetes celastrinea Pax & K.Hoffm. A(iv) True True True False False

Staurogyne pseudocapitata Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria densinervia (K.Krause) Verdc.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cyclantheropsis occidentalis Gilg & Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Autranella congolensis (De Wild.) A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes tessmanniana (Pax) Pax & K.Hoffm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Macaranga paxii Prain

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Trichoscypha eugong Engl. & Brehmer

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycobolus micranthus (Dammer) Heine

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum fayi J.J.Verm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sabicea cameroonensis Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria senterrei O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Craterostigma yaundense (S.Moore) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Massularia stevartiana (K.Schum.) Hoyle

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diospyros crassiflora Hiern

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Sabicea cruciata Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diaphananthe sarcorhynchoides J.B.Hall

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta laxa

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta robusta Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pavetta cellulosa Bremek.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(ii)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria lanceifolia K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Synsepalum batesii (A.Chev.) Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Homalium hypolasium Mildbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Dacryodes buettneri (Engl.) H.J.Lam

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Ancistrocladus le-testui Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Baillonella toxisperma Pierre

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Amphimas tessmannii Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Marantochloa mildbraedii Koechlin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia lenticellosa Loes. ex Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhipidoglossum ochyrae Szlach. & Olszewski

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Telfairia batesii Keraudren

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Dalbergia nervosa O.Lachenaud

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coffea anthonyi Stof f. & F.Anthony

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola mahoundensis Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pachylobus igaganga (Aubrév. & Pellegr.) Byng & Christenh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Habenaria stenochila Lindl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Homalium ogoouense Pellegr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Loudetia furtiva Jacq.-Fél.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Agelanthus dichrous (Danser) Polhill & Wiens

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Garcinia staudtii Engl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Magnistipula cuneatifolia Hauman

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Millettia laurentii de Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Prioria joveri (Normand ex Aubrév.) Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pterygota bequaertii De Wild.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Sarcophrynium villosum (Benth.) K.Schum.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tapinanthus preussii (Engl.) Tiegh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Drypetes celastrinea Pax & K.Hoffm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest 70 Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest 15 Unknown
Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks] No value Unknown
Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest 15 Unknown

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
70
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest

Percent coverage:
15
Importance:
Unknown

Rocky Areas - Rocky Areas [e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks]

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Unknown

Artificial - Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest

Percent coverage:
15
Importance:
Unknown

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation 95 Major
Forestry 5 Major

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
95
Importance:
Major

Forestry

Percent coverage:
5
Importance:
Major

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Natural system modifications - Dams & water management/use - Large dams Low Ongoing - stable
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Low Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals High Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting Medium Ongoing - increasing
Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying Low Future - inferred threat

Natural system modifications - Dams & water management/use - Large dams

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - stable

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Energy production & mining - Mining & quarrying

Severity:
Low
Timing:
Future - inferred threat

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Dja Faunal Reserve Wildlife Sanctuary IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 5260

Dja Faunal Reserve

Protected area type:
Wildlife Sanctuary
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
5260

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Dja Faunal Reserve Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area matches IPA 6278
Dja Faunal Reserve Important Bird Area protected/conservation area matches IPA 6278
TRIDOM (Tri-National Dja-Odzala-Minkébé forest) Regional trans-border conservation area protected/conservation area encompasses IPA 6278
Dja Biosphere Reserve UNESCO Biosphere Site protected/conservation area encompasses IPA 6278
Dja Faunal Reserve UNESCO World Heritage Site IPA encompasses protected/conservation area 5260

Dja Faunal Reserve

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
6278

Dja Faunal Reserve

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
6278

TRIDOM (Tri-National Dja-Odzala-Minkébé forest)

Protected area:
Regional trans-border conservation area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
6278

Dja Biosphere Reserve

Protected area:
UNESCO Biosphere Site
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area encompasses IPA
Areal overlap:
6278

Dja Faunal Reserve

Protected area:
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Relationship with IPA:
IPA encompasses protected/conservation area
Areal overlap:
5260

Management type

Management type Description Year started Year finished
Protected Area management plan in place A management plan, initially drawn up in 2003, was approved in 2007 and launched in 2008 (UNESCO, 2009), but subsequent yearly reports have repeatedly drawn attention to the "lack of entire approval and implementation of management plan" (e.g. UNESCO, 2019). 2008 No value

Protected Area management plan in place

A management plan, initially drawn up in 2003, was approved in 2007 and launched in 2008 (UNESCO, 2009), but subsequent yearly reports have repeatedly drawn attention to the "lack of entire approval and implementation of management plan" (e.g. UNESCO, 2019).
Year started:
2008
Year finished:
No value

Bibliography

Letouzey, R., 1968

Étude Phytogéographique du Cameroun

Letouzey, R., 1985

Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1: 500,000.

Yerima, B. & Van Ranst, E., 2005

Major Soil Classification Systems Used in the Tropics: Soils of Cameroon

Sonké, B., 2004

Forêts de la Réserve du Dja (Cameroun): Etudes Floristiques et Structurales [Forests of the Dja Reserve (Cameroon): Floristic and Structural Studies]

Scripta Botanica Belgica, Vol 32 (pub. National Botanic Garden of Belgium), page(s) 144

Hardy, O. & Sonke, B., 2004

Spatial pattern analysis of tree species distribution in a tropical rain forest of Cameroon: assessing the role of limited dispersal and niche differentiation

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol 197, page(s) 191-202

Manel, S., Couvreur, T., Munoz, F., Couteron, P., Hardy, O. & Sonké, B., 2014

Characterizing the Phylogenetic Tree Community Structure of a Protected Tropical Rain Forest Area in Cameroon

Plos One, Vol 9(6), page(s) e98920

IUCN and UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2012

World Heritage Datasheet: Dja Faunal Reserve

Available online

Key Biodiversity Areas Partnership, 2020

Key Biodiversity Areas factsheet: Dja Faunal Reserve. Extracted from the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. Developed by the Key Biodiversity Areas Partnership: BirdLife International, IUCN, American Bird Conservancy, et al.

Available online

Epanda, M.A., Donkeng, R.T., Nonga, F.N., Frynta, F., Adi, N.N., Willie, J. & Speelman, S., 2020

Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Product Valorisation to the Livelihood Assets of Local People in the Northern Periphery of the Dja Faunal Reserve, East Cameroon

Forests, Vol 11, page(s) 1019

Bruce, T., Ndjassi, C., Fowler, A., Ndimbe, M., Fankem, O., Bruno R., Mbobda, T., Kobla, A-S., Puemo, F.A.W., Amin, R., Wacher,T., Grange-Chamfray, S. & Olson, D., 2018

Faunal Inventory of the Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon – 2018

Available online

UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2019

State of Conservation Report: Dja Faunal Reserve

Available online

UNESCO, 2021

Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon

Available online

UNESCO, 2021b

World Heritage List: Dja Faunal Reserve

Available online

Amin, R., Fankem, O, Gilbert, O.N., Bruce, T., Ndjassi, C., Olson, D. & Fowler, A., 2020

The status of the forest elephant in the world heritage Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon

Pachyderm, Vol 61, page(s) 78-89 Available online

Cheek, M., 2017

Pavetta laxa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T110075322A110075324

Available online

Gallois, S, van Andel, T., Heger, T., Sonké, B. and Hengry, A.G., 2020

Comparing Apples and Pears: the Hidden Diversity of Central African Bush Mangoes (Irvingiaceae)

Economic Botany, Vol XX(X), page(s) 1–17

Kenfack, D., Thomas, D., Chuyong, G. & Condit, R., 2007

Rarity and abundance in a diverse African forest

Biodivers Conserv, Vol 16, page(s) 2045–2074

Peh, K., Sonké, B., Lloyd, J., Quesada, C. & Lewis, S., 2011

Soil Does Not Explain Monodominance in a Central African Tropical Forest

Plos One, Vol 6(2), page(s) e16996

Betti, J.L., 2004

Impact of Forest Logging in the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. Unpublished context study report, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Cameroon.

Betti, J.L. & Lejoly, J., 2009

Contribution to the knowledge of medicinal plants of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon: Plants used for treating jaundice

Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol 3(12), page(s) 1056-1065

Betti, J.L., 2004

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants among the Baka Pygmies in the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon

African Study Monographs, Vol 25(1), page(s) 1-27

Sonké, B. & Couvreur, T., 2004

Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

Biodiversity Data Journal, Vol 2, page(s) e1049

Billong Fils, P. E., Nana, N.A., Betti, J.L., Njimbam, O.F., Womeni, S.T. , Martin, E.A., Brull, G.R., Okale, R., Fa, J.E. & Funk, S.M., 2020

Ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants used by Baka people in southeastern Cameroon

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Vol 16, page(s) 64

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy, Jean Lagarde Betti (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Dja Faunal reserve (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/dja-faunal-reserve/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)