Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary

CMNTIPA030
Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary

Country: Cameroon

Administrative region: Southwest (Region)

Central co-ordinates: 5.32000 N, 9.63000 E

Area: 666km²

Qualifying IPA Criteria

A(i)Site contains one or more globally threatened species

IPA assessment rationale

Despite limited data relating to its phytodiversity, the site qualifies as an IPA under criterion A(i) because of its significant populations of globally threatened species such as Warneckea ngutiensis (CR), Diaphananthe lanceolata (CR), Coffea bakossi (EN), Piptostigma goslineanum (VU), Cola metallica (CR) and Rothmannia ebamutensis (EN). It would also very likely qualify under other criteria as B(i) and C(i-iii) for its lowland evergreen rainforest and associated flora.

Site description

Officially gazetted in 1996 as Cameroon's first nationally protected faunal reserve, Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary constitutes over 66,000 ha of lowland and submontane rainforest in Manyu and Kupe-Muanenguba divisions, Southwest Region. The boundary forms a boot shape, with the toe located at the southeastern extreme in a steeply mountainous part of the Bakossi mountains known as the Mwenzekong range, which rises to 1800 m east of Ntale. As the name indicates, the protected area status was designated primarily with a view to preserving animals, especially the notable birdlife and megafauna, which includes rare primates and elephants (Ajonina et al., 2013). A research station is based a few km west of the reserve boundary in the town of Nguti on the main Kumba-Mamfe road. A new road now connects Nguti with Bangem to the southeast of the park. Bangem also serves as the northeastern gateway town to Bakossi National Park which is only 4 km south of Banyang Mbo, the two reserves separated by the Mbu valley through which the new road is routed. Further north, the smaller, proposed Mak Betchou wildlife sanctuary is only a couple of km east of Banyang Mbo's northeast corner, while the Tofala Hills Wildlife Reserve and Lebialem highlands are another 15–20 km to the north, where the forest rises steeply before giving way to the largely denuded Mt Bamboutos and the Bamenda Highlands.

Botanical significance

In contrast to its acknowledged status as a wildlife sanctuary, Banyang Mbo has been little surveyed for plants. Despite this there are enough records to indicate high diversity, with considerable areas of relatively untouched forest in addition to logged secondary forest (Birdlife, 2021). Ajoni et al. (2014) report 543 species, representing 75 families, have been recorded but the source of this is not clear. They also cite Gentry's 1988 "Banyong" transect as indicating the highest plant diversity in Central Africa, but Gentry's survey was actually along the eastern border of Korup National Park, at least 25km outside the boundary of the sanctuary (Philips & Miller, 2002; Ajonji et al., 2014).
Zapfack et al. (2010) found 93 orchid species in and around Banyang Mbo. The 48 actually within the sanctuary constituted 12% of orchids species known to occur in Cameroon. Several of these are globally threatened and included below as IPA criterion A(i) species. A useful study by Nchanji & Plumptre (2003) records a number of taxa germinated from seeds found in elephant dung collected within the sanctuary, but inevitably this type of study records few rare species. Other collections have mainly been made from close to the Nguti research station, with many possibly slightly outside the boundary (including Warneckea ngutiensis, CR), or close to Ebamut village in the southeast. Because of the limited data available, the list of IPA taxa is relatively short (compared to nearby Bakossi National Park and Korup National Park) but there are enough records from the limited collecting efforts to suggest similarly high phytodiversity. Notable taxa that are particularly reliant on the sanctuary include Coffea bakossi (EN), Piptostigma goslineanum (VU), Cola metallica (CR), Diaphananthe lanceolata (CR), Rothmannia ebamutensis (EN) and Warneckia ngutiensis (CR). The latter is narrowly endemic, having only so far having been collected from the planned palm oil concession neighbouring the Sanctuary.
Coffea leonimontana (CR), previously considered possibly extinct, has also been recorded from the sanctuary, although this location was not included in the IUCN assessment. Salacia conraui (CR) is known only from the type location near Tali, 4 km north of the National Park boundary.

Habitat and geology

The sanctuary area can be divided into three areas (Zapfack et al, 2010; Birdlife, 2021). The western section is largely flat and low (200–300 m), although there are some hills in the far north rising to c. 550 m. This is predominantly high canopy, evergreen lowland forest with emergents. The forest reportedly transitions into semi-deciduous forest in the far north (Abugiche, 2002).
In the southeast, the site touches the Cameroon Line fault region which thrusts the terrain up to 1,800 m. Between the lowland and submontane areas, an intermediate area is characterised by inselbergs with low-canopy forest (Birdlife, 2021).
The steeply rugged Mwenzekong Mountains are separated by the Mbu valley from the Mwendolengo mountains to the south, which fall within the Bakossi National Park. The Mfi-Mie river valley forms much of the eastern border of the reserve and separates the northern edge of the Mwenzekong mountains from the slightly higher Ekomane arc to the north. However, the eastern-most border is at 1,500 m, passing through a high ridge connecting these ranges to the east. Mount Manengouba is also connected by terrain not dropping below 1,200 m. The Mwenzekong Mountains are likely early Quaternary, uplifted basement complex (gneisses and schists) without the more recent volcanic material of Kupe and Manengouba (Wild, 2004; Abugiche, 2002, Enang et al., 2020). The soils on the steep slopes are thin and easily eroded and appear to lack the high fertility of the volcanic peaks (Abugiche, 2002; Wild, 2004). These hills are clothed in submontane cloud forest, rich in mosses, ferns and epiphytes (Wild, 2004). More generally, the soils in the sanctuary are described as clayey to sandy (Abugiche, 2002).
Rivers in the sanctuary flow northwest into the Manyu which then joins the Cross river northwest of Mamfe.
The area has a very wet, two-season climate, with c. 3,000 mm of per annum (Birdlife, 2021). This is likely exceeded on steep western slopes and supplemented by "horizontal" or "occult" precipitation induced by cloud forest vegetation (Ajonje et al., 2014; Wild, 2004) and Chifu Nchanji & Plumptre (2003) also report 4083 ± 487 mm in Nguti just outside the western boundary. The wet season runs from mid-March to October but patterns vary across the site: while in Nguti, October was the wettest month, at Bangem data shows July and August to have more than twice as much total precipitation as October (Nchangji & Plumptre 2003; Ejedepang-Koge, 1986, cited by Wild, 2004). Temperature varies relatively little seasonally around an annual mean of 23 °C (at Bangem, 1,120 m) but daily variation in the highland areas will be more significant (Ejedepang-Koge, 1986, cited by Wild, 2004).

Conservation issues

The main threats are from subsistence farming and small scale cash-cropping. There are 54 villages within 10 km of the boundary (Ajonina et al., 2013 ). Of these, 24 have direct impact on the forest according to Abugiche (2002). The status of Wildlife Sanctuary allows local villagers to continue to use the forest for hunting and other products as long as this does not conflict with conservation objectives. Locals also manage the sanctuary with assistance from MINEF and WCS (Rose, 2002). The boundary is not demarcated on the ground and villagers develop farms within the sanctuary (Hill et al., 2002). Zapfack et al. (2010) suggest such activities are "progressively destroying" the forest. This practice also increases conflicts over crop-raiding by large mammals, an unresolved problem hindering wildlife conservation efforts in the park and surrounding area (Rose, 2002; Nchanji, 2002). Although conservation species are in theory excluded from hunting, bushmeat consumption is a serious problem and traditional taboos protecting forests and large fauna are breaking down. However, the forest is still fundamental to local livelihoods and culture (Abugigche, 2002; Rose 2002; Nchangi 2002).
Archaeological evidence points to a history of settlement within the forest dating back to the 9th century which has likely influenced the habitat (Oslily et al., 2000). Part of the lowland forest is reported to be secondary forest that has been more recently logged (Abugiche, 2002).
A new road has recently been built along the site's southern border, connecting Nguti and Bangem. This seems likely to increase clearance and bushmeat exploitation within the sanctuary and threatens to limit faunal migration between the site and Bakossi National Park and other areas. Between the town of Nguti and the western boundary a 2,500 ha palm oil plantation has been designated. Several threatened species have been collected from this site and most of these, including the Critically Endangered, narrowly endemic Warneckea ngutiensis, have not yet been collected within the gazetted borders, although they may occur there. Zapfack et al. (2010) found that more species of orchid were found outside than inside the boundaries (although it is unclear how collecting effort compared). Habitat loss and settlement have also disrupted connections with Mt Manengouba, Mt Kupe and Mt Nlonako and efforts should be made to restore these forest corridors and to protect those linking the site with Korup National Park, Nta Ali Forest Reserve, Rumpi Hills, Mak Betchou and Tofala Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries.
It should be noted that Lake Bermin, a site of remarkable biological significance for its nine endemic, sympatrically evolved fish species (Schliewen et al., 1994), lies just outside the boundary, in the zone between the site and Bakossi National Park.

Ecosystem services

Banyang Mbo supports a rich fauna, including many globally threatened species. At least 322 species of birds have been recorded, including the Mt Kupe Bush-shrike (Telophorus kupeensis, EN), as well as 33 large mammals including highly threatened species such as elephants (Loxodonta africana, CR), Mandrills (Mandrillus leucophaeus (EN), Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ssp. ellioti) Preuss's Monkey (Cercopithecus preussi, EN) forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), Giant Pangolins and red-eared Guenons. With 71 amphibians recorded, Riley & Riley (2005) described Banyang Mbo as having "perhaps the densest and most diverse frog population in the world", although subsequent claims have been made for nearby Manenguba and Nlonako. Seventy-three reptiles, including 23 lizards and 46 snakes are also known from the site (Birdlife, 2021; Ajonina et al., 2013; Abugiche, 2002).
The forest, particularly the upland cloud forest, feeds several rivers and provides water, food, medicines and other resources to many local communities. It harbours genetic reserves of important timber and food species, including rare Coffea bakossii (CR).
The site has an established but still relatively small scale wildlife tourism industry.
The large area of tropical moist forest is likely to be a major carbon sink and could form a significant part of Cameroon's Redd++ strategy.

Site assessor(s)

Bruce Murphy, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

IPA criterion A species

Species Qualifying sub-criterion ≥ 1% of global population ≥ 5% of national population 1 of 5 best sites nationally Entire global population Socio-economically important Abundance at site
Rothmannia ebamutensis Sonké A(i) True True True False False
Rinorea fausteana Achound. A(i) True True True False False
Coffea bakossii Cheek & Bridson A(i) True True True False True
Crateranthus talbotii Baker f. A(i) False True True False False
Loesenera talbotii Baker f. A(i) True False False False False
Polystachya superposita Rchb.f. A(i) True True True False False
Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart A(i) True True True False False
Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin A(i) False False True False True
Aulacocalyx mapiana Sonké & Bridson A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Baillonella toxisperma Pierre A(i) False False False False True
Begonia prismatocarpa Hook. subsp. delobata Sosef A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr. A(i) True True True False False
Calyptrochilum aurantiacum (P.J.Cribb & Laan) Stévart, M.Simo & Droissart A(i) True True True False False
Cola metallica Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr. A(i) True True False False False
Manniella cypripedioides Salazar, T.Franke, Zapfack & Beenken A(i) True True True False False
Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev. A(i) True False False False False
Octoknema bakossiensis Gosline & Malécot A(i) True True True False False
Piptostigma goslineanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur A(i) True True True False False
Plagiosiphon discifer Harms A(i) True True True False False
Polystachya farinosa Kraenzl. A(i) True True True False False
Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek A(i) True False True False False
Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl. A(i) True True True False False
Polystachya kornasiana Szlach. & Olszewski A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum volcanicum Kraenzl. A(i) True True True False False
Warneckea ngutiensis R. D. Stone A(i) True True True True False
Belonophora talbotii (Wernham) Keay A(i), A(iii) True True True False False
Tricalysia lejolyana Sonké & Cheek A(i) True True True False False
Allophylus conraui Gilg ex Radlk. A(i) False True False False False
Diaphananthe lanceolata (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward A(i) True True True False False
Bulbophyllum micropetalum Lindl. A(i) True True True False False
Vepris letouzeyi Onana A(ii) True False True False False
Afzelia bipindensis Harms A(i) False False False False True
Craibia atlantica Dunn A(i) False False True False False
Pradosia spinosa Ewango & Breteler A(i) True True True False False
Rhipidoglossum obanense (Rendle) Summerh. A(i) True True True False False
Salacia conraui Loes. A(i) True True True True False
Bulbophyllum subligaculiferum J.J.Verm. A(i) False True True False False
Bulbophyllum summerhayesianum (Szlach. & Olszewski) Govaerts & J.M.H.Shaw A(i) True True True False False
Polystachya principia Stévart & P.J.Cribb A(i), A(iv) True True True False False
Empogona talbotii (Wernham) Tosh & Robbr. A(i) True True True False False
Angraecum egertonii Rendle (syn. Ancistrorynchus egertonii) A(i) True True True False False
Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr. A(i) True False False False False
Pseudosabicea pedicellata Wernham A(i) False True True False False

Rothmannia ebamutensis Sonké

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rinorea fausteana Achound.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Coffea bakossii Cheek & Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Crateranthus talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Loesenera talbotii Baker f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya superposita Rchb.f.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afropectinariella pungens (Schltr.) M.Simo & Stévart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Antrocaryon micraster A.Chev. & Guillaumin

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Aulacocalyx mapiana Sonké & Bridson

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Baillonella toxisperma Pierre

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Begonia prismatocarpa Hook. subsp. delobata Sosef

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calyptrochilum aurantiacum (P.J.Cribb & Laan) Stévart, M.Simo & Droissart

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Cola metallica Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diaphananthe bueae (Schltr.) Schltr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Manniella cypripedioides Salazar, T.Franke, Zapfack & Beenken

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Microberlinia bisulcata A.Chev.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Octoknema bakossiensis Gosline & Malécot

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Piptostigma goslineanum Ghogue, Sonké & Couvreur

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Plagiosiphon discifer Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya farinosa Kraenzl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Psychotria bimbiensis Bridson & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Staurogyne bicolor (Mildbr.) Champl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya kornasiana Szlach. & Olszewski

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum volcanicum Kraenzl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Warneckea ngutiensis R. D. Stone

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Belonophora talbotii (Wernham) Keay

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Tricalysia lejolyana Sonké & Cheek

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Allophylus conraui Gilg ex Radlk.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Diaphananthe lanceolata (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum micropetalum Lindl.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Vepris letouzeyi Onana

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(ii)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Afzelia bipindensis Harms

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
True
Abundance at site:

Craibia atlantica Dunn

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pradosia spinosa Ewango & Breteler

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Rhipidoglossum obanense (Rendle) Summerh.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Salacia conraui Loes.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
True
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum subligaculiferum J.J.Verm.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Bulbophyllum summerhayesianum (Szlach. & Olszewski) Govaerts & J.M.H.Shaw

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Polystachya principia Stévart & P.J.Cribb

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i), A(iv)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Empogona talbotii (Wernham) Tosh & Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Angraecum egertonii Rendle (syn. Ancistrorynchus egertonii)

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Calycosiphonia macrochlamys (K.Schum.) Robbr.

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
True
≥ 5% of national population:
False
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
False
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

Pseudosabicea pedicellata Wernham

Qualifying sub-criterion:
A(i)
≥ 1% of global population:
False
≥ 5% of national population:
True
1 of 5 best sites nationally:
True
Entire global population:
False
Socio-economically important:
False
Abundance at site:

General site habitats

General site habitat Percent coverage Importance
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest No value Major
Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest No value Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Major

Land use types

Land use type Percent coverage Importance
Nature conservation 100 Major
Agriculture (arable) No value Unknown
Harvesting of wild resources No value Unknown

Nature conservation

Percent coverage:
100
Importance:
Major

Agriculture (arable)

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Unknown

Harvesting of wild resources

Percent coverage:
No value
Importance:
Unknown

Threats

Threat Severity Timing
Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads Medium Past, likely to return
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Medium Ongoing - increasing
Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Medium Ongoing - increasing
Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting Medium Ongoing - trend unknown
Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals High Ongoing - trend unknown

Transportation & service corridors - Roads & railroads

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Past, likely to return

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - increasing

Biological resource use - Logging & wood harvesting

Severity:
Medium
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Biological resource use - Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals

Severity:
High
Timing:
Ongoing - trend unknown

Protected areas

Protected area name Protected area type Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Sanctuary protected/conservation area matches IPA 666

Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary

Protected area type:
Wildlife Sanctuary
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
666

Conservation designation

Designation name Protected area Relationship with IPA Areal overlap
Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary Important Bird Area protected/conservation area matches IPA 666
Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary Key Biodiversity Area protected/conservation area matches IPA No value

Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary

Protected area:
Important Bird Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
666

Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary

Protected area:
Key Biodiversity Area
Relationship with IPA:
protected/conservation area matches IPA
Areal overlap:
No value

Bibliography

Wild, C., 2004a

The Physical Environment

The Plants of Kupe, Mwanenenguba and the Bakossi Mountains, Cameroon: a conservation checklist (pub. RBG Kew), page(s) 17-23

Cheek, M., Polllard, B., Darbyshire, I., Onana, J-M. & Wild, C., 2004

The Plants of Kupe, Mwanenenguba and the Bakossi Mountains, Cameroon: a conservation checklist

Enang, R., Yerima, B., Kome, G. & Van Ranst, E., 2020

Trace elements in Tephra Soils of Mounts Kupe and Manengouba (Cameroon)

Eurasian Soil Science, Vol 53(5), page(s) 595-606

Chifu Nchanji, A. & Plumptre, A., 2003

Seed germination and early seedling establishment of some elephant-dispersed species in Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, south-western Cameroon

Riley, L. & Riley W., 2005

Nature's Strongholds: The World's Great Wildlife Reserves

Zapfack, L., Simo, P. & Salazar, G. A., 2010

Orchid conservation in the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary and its surroundings

Hill, C., Osborn, F. & Plumptre, A.J., 2002

Human-Wildlife Conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series Vol. 1.

Rose, R., 2002

A Spatial Analysis of Wildlife Crop Raiding Around the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, Cameroon

Human-Wildlife Conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series Vol. 1. (pub. Wildlife Conservation Society.), page(s) 88-95

Nchanji, A., 2002

Crop Damage around Northern Banyang-Mbo 68 Wildlife Sanctuary

Human-Wildlife Conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solutions. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series Vol. 1. (pub. Wildlife Conservation Society, US), page(s) 68-77

Ajonina Abugiche, S., 2009

Impact of hunting and bushmeat trade on biodiversity loss in Cameroon : a case study of the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary. PhD thesis

Phillips, O. & Miller, J., 2002

Global Patterns of Plant Diversity: Alwyn H. Gentry's Forest Transect Data Set

Ajonina, G., Wiegleb, G., Fuashi, N. & Heribert, H., 2013

Endangering the endangered: Are protected areas save havens for threatened species in Cameroon? Case of Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, South Western Cameroon

Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment, Vol 6(2), page(s) 42-55 Available online

Schliewen, U., Tautz, D. & Pääbo, S., 1994

Sympatric speciation suggested by monophyly of crater lake cichlids

Nature, Vol 368, page(s) 629-632

Recommended citation

Bruce Murphy (2024) Tropical Important Plant Areas Explorer: Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary (Cameroon). https://tipas.kew.org/site/banyang-mbo-wildlife-sanctuary/ (Accessed on 21/05/2024)